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European Military Expansion (1000–1450)

European Military Expansion (1000–1450)

C O N T E N T S:

  • Though gunpowder along with other weapons had been started by Chinese, it was the Europeans who developed and perfected its military potential, precipitating European expansion and eventual imperialism in the Modern Era.(More...)

  • POSSIBLY USEFUL POSSIBLY USEFUL The Dark Ages interpretation, however, fails to take into account the many great achievements made by Western Europeans during the Middle Ages--from the beauty of manuscript illumination and Gothic architecture to the literary classics of Augustine and Dante.(More...)
  • The Magyars ceased their expansion in the 10th century, and by the year 1000 a Christian Kingdom of Hungary had become a recognized state in Central Europe, forming alliances with regional powers.(More...)


Though gunpowder along with other weapons had been started by Chinese, it was the Europeans who developed and perfected its military potential, precipitating European expansion and eventual imperialism in the Modern Era. [1] Which factor helps explain the scientific and literary achievements of the Muslims during their Golden Age? A. expansion of transatlantic trade B. innovations introduced by the Europeans during the Renaissance C. cultural diversity accepted by many Islamic governments D. legal equality of all people in the Islamic empire E. the status of women in society. [2] European Expansion : This map illustrates the main travels of the Age of Discovery, from 1482-1524. [1] The optimistic take on this is that beginning with the material covered in the next course, there's a very rapid ascent from 1000 to about 1300, a tremendous growth of the European economy and a tremendous expansion of both population, artistic, political, and intellectual creativity that is the central period of the Middle Ages. [1] According to Microsoft Encarta, "The early Middle Ages drew to a close in the 10th century with the new migrations and invasions, the coming of the Vikings, and the weakening of all forces of European unity and expansion" (Microsoft). [1] This Eurasian extension of the circuits of merchant capital did not only emanate from Europe; it also included large expansions within Asia itself, not only among the merchants and bankers who financed the regional trade and facilitated European exports, but also along financiers who provided state revenues in the form of taxation. [1] Explaining leading ideas of Social Darwinism and pseudoscientific racism in 19th-century Europe, and assessing the importance of these ideas in activating European imperial expansion in Africa and Asia. [1]

The expansion of European colonial powers to the New World increased the demand for slaves and made the slave trade much more lucrative to many West African powers, leading to the establishment of a number of West African empires that thrived on the slave trade. [1] As historian John Thornton remarked, "the actual motivation for European expansion and for navigational breakthroughs was little more than to exploit the opportunity for immediate profits made by raiding and the seizure or purchase of trade commodities." [1] These will provide the political underpinnings for the European expansion to come. [1]

For various military, political, and economic motives, the European powers of that time began to take a more active interest in the lands and peoples of the Middle East. [1] Analyzing the success of the Ottoman, Indian, Chinese, and Japanese powers in restricting European commercial, military, and political penetration in the 16th century. [1] European domination of the rest of the world is entering a new phase, as a handful of powers, especially Britain, France and Holland have started to use their industrialized military capacity to acquire extensive overseas territories in Africa, SE Asia and the Pacific. [1] This pugilism became a long-term advantage of sorts because the bloody competition between many states pressured Europeans to improve on their military technology. [1] Southeast European "Dark Ages" (c. 600-- c, 800 ) 107 archontes ot Slavic tribes in or on the periphery of the Byzantine mil- itary district (theme) in existence at that time in eastern Greece. 79 Shortly following the creation of the theme of Thrace in the 680s, a second theme must have already been in place when, in 695, Leon- tius, a former general of Anatolikon, was appointed military governor of Hellas. [1]

The U.S. expanded over land and into Latin America by the expansion of the enterprise of its citizens and expansion of its military power, as the British empire expanded into Asia and then Africa -- along with the French and Dutch. [1] The 1840s form a watershed in the institutionalization of a world regime of national expansion and international economic organization -- when the British navy forced open the interior of China to British merchant settlements with military victories waged during the Opium Wars to protect the right of British merchants to trade in opium in China; and when the U.S. Admiral Perry forced the Japanese to open their ports to American trade. b. [1] Muslim rule expanded to many parts of Afro-Eurasia due to military expansion, and Islam subsequently expanded through the activities of merchants and missionaries. [1] In the sixteenth through eighteenth centuries the principal methods of state expansion included military conquest, frontier settlement, and expansion into territories not under effective jurisdiction by other states, and alliances and diplomatic deals with local ruling elites, who became clients or subjects of Russia. [1]

Just as the devastating invasions of the ninth and tenth centuries were followed by the rebirth and expansion of European society in the Central Middle Ages, so too the "calamitous" fourteenth century was followed by another period of prodigious growth and change. [1]

European imperial expansion shifted into Asia, where the use of military power by European national states for the protection of their national interests became a new force in the process of capital accumulation. [3] Muslim rule expanded to many parts of Afro-Eurasia due to military expansion, and Islam subsequently expanded through the activities of merchants, missionaries, and Sufis. [4]

POSSIBLY USEFUL POSSIBLY USEFUL The Dark Ages interpretation, however, fails to take into account the many great achievements made by Western Europeans during the Middle Ages--from the beauty of manuscript illumination and Gothic architecture to the literary classics of Augustine and Dante. [1] Migration period, also called Dark Ages or Early Middle Ages, the early medieval period of western European history--specifically, the time (476-800 ce ) when there was no Roman (or Holy Roman ) emperor in the West or, more generally, the period between about 500 and 1000, which was marked by frequent warfare and a virtual disappearance of urban life. [1] As a continental European I have always used the concept of "early middle ages" - never using "dark ages", and certainly not to set them apart from the medieval period. [1] There was no secret why European civilization suddenly flowered in the High Medieval Period, sometimes called the High Middle Ages. [1] The fall of the Roman Empire (476 CE) and the beginning of the European Renaissance in the late 14th century roughly bookend the period known as the Middle Ages. [1] The Middle Ages of Western Europe are commonly dated from the end of the Western Roman Empire ( 5th century ) until the rise of national monarchies, the start of European overseas exploration, the humanist revival, and the Protestant Reformation starting in 1517. [1] The Roman empire gave way to a multitude of quarrelling post-Roman states; pagan peoples were converted by Christian missionary bishops; and the Mediterranean heritage of the ancient world combined with the different traditions of northern European peoples to set the foundations for the western European kingdoms of the high middle ages and Renaissance. [1] Summary : The European Middle Ages (or Medieval Time) is roughly 1000 year span of time from the end of the Roman Empire (in the West) to the beginning of the Renaissance. [1] An essay or paper on middle ages to the renaissance changes in italy during the 1300 european thinkers in the medieval times believed that peoples. [1] The European Middle Ages got its name during the Italian Renaissance, when scholars wished to account for the period between the classical age of Greece and Rome and the time of their own rebirth. [1] By the High Middle Ages, in the time periods around 1000 C.E., Europeans had developed the system of feudalism and had performed actions to prevent the harm of external invasions and attacks. [1] The Middle Ages of the European world covers approximately 1,000 years of art history in Europe, and at times extended into the Middle East and North Africa. [1] This European Age of Discovery saw the rise of colonial empires on a global scale, building a commercial network that connected Europe, Asia, Africa, and the New World. [1] The Age of Discovery was largely driven based on the fact that perhaps one of the most lucrative trading routes at the time, the Silk Road and other eastern trade routes were controlled by the Ottoman empire, and this in effect cut European powers off from trading with Asia. [1] The globalizing character is perhaps one of the most distinguishing features of this age, as trade began between previously unknown peoples, cultures, colonies were established by the dominant European powers, and our world became much smaller as it was charted. [1] Long distance trade expanded and modern banking and capitalism began to develop. Politically, this was the age in which nationalism began to develop and European states began to be more centralized and more efficiently governed. [1] The end date of the early modern period is variously associated with the Industrial Revolution, which began in Britain in about 1750, or the beginning of the French Revolution in 1789, which drastically transformed the state of European politics and ushered in the Napoleonic Era and modern Europe. [1] Some of the more notable trends and events of the early modern period included the Reformation and the religious conflicts it provoked (including the French Wars of Religion and the Thirty Years' War ), the rise of capitalism and modern nation states, and European colonization of the Americas. [1] The early modern period also witnessed the circumnavigation of the Earth and the establishment of regular European contact with the Americas and South and East Asia. [1] During this period, Europeans engaged in intensive exploration and early colonization of many parts of the world, establishing direct contact with Africa, the Americas, Asia, and Oceania. [1]

The Age of Enlightenment refers to the 18th century in European philosophy, and is often thought of as part of a period which includes the Age of Reason. [1] Age of Discovery : The period starting in the early 15th century and continuing into the early 17th century during which Europeans engaged in intensive exploration of the world. [1] Age of Exploration: The period from about 1450 to about 1750, when European explorers conducted their most significant voyages and travels around the world. [1] The European Middles Ages was a society dominated by the Catholic Church, but with several other religions represented under that umbrella, such as Judaism, Islam, and various forms of Paganism. [1] Multilingual linguistic note: In English, the noun is always plural -- "Middle Ages" -- wheras it (apparently) tends to be plural in a lot of other European languages -- "Moyen Age." [1] Europeans living between 1000 and 1300 would have been shocked to hear that they were living in the "Middle" Ages. [1]

Despite feudalistic societies occurring in other parts of the world, European feudalism of the Medieval Ages remain the common model of the feudal society. [1] Bronze Age farming cultures now cover most of Europe, and in the south-east, the first European civilizations now flourish in Crete and Greece. [1] Around the same time, the Age of Exploration began with the first European voyages around the coast of Africa. [1] While Western history often centers on Europeans as the earliest and most advanced explorers of the world, growing evidence suggests extensive transoceanic travel had been well underway long before the European Age of Discovery. [5] This gives them a sample range from roughly the early 16th century, including the European Renaissance and the Age of Discovery. [1] The apparent prosperity of the 16th century gave way in the middle and late periods of the 17th century to a "general crisis" in many European regions. [1] A larger number of plays survive from France and Germany in this period and some type of religious dramas were performed in nearly every European country in the Late Middle Ages. [1] Technology During the Middle Ages Although the Middle Ages is known as a backward period in history, many inventions greatly changed the lives of the European people. [1] Wickham’s interpretation of the European Middle Ages is one of vibrancy and dynamism, a welcome reminder of why many people find this period fascinating. [1] Wickham, one of the leading historians of the European Middle Ages, offers his own unique perspective on the period in this lively survey, which squeezes an extraordinary amount of information into a modest 257 pages of text. [1] I've always had this fuzzy conception that the Middle Ages was kind of dark but not really, but I never had a clear idea that there was a nice separation between the two types right around 1000 AD. Unlike the popular impression, the European Middle Ages, especially from the 12 th century onwards, were an era of impressive scientific progress and innovation. [1] The idea of the Middle Ages in general, and of the Dark Ages in particular, is specifically European in origin--or rather, Western European. [1] In place of the fallen Western Rome, Barbarian kingdoms arose in 5th and 6th centuries and came to decisively shape European culture of the upcoming Middle Ages. [1] OK Chapter 10, Lesson 1 The Early Middle Ages It Matters Because: Medieval European governments, religions, languages, and culture still influence the modern. [1] Hunyadi and J. Laszlovszky (Budapest: Department of Medieval Studies, Central European University, 2001), pp. 253-26X. 4°8 Southeastern Europe in the Middle Ages, 500--1250 northern side of the Transylvanian Alps into the Hunedoara region (terra Harszoc), which the king now removed from Litovoi’s authority and placed under the authority of the t’oevode of Transylvania. [1] European science in the Middle Ages comprised the study of nature, mathematics and natural philosophy in medieval Europe. [1] A chronology of the middle ages (500-1500) 1050-1200 the first agricultural revolution of medieval europe begins in 1050 it is translated into european. [1] Urban Growth and LifeDuring the High Middle Ages cities andtowns grew dramatically:• Europe was more stable (the threat of invasion had gone and the Knights were away on crusades - not warring at home).• The Crusades united many European Kingdoms and the movements of large numbers of crusaders encouraged trade.• New inventions resulted in improved harvests (e.g. water mills and better plows)• The population boomed from the years 1100-1300. [1] A fact of life in the European Middle Ages is that there are no paved roads, except the network of Roman roads which where sometimes still usable, mostly in Italy, but, up until the 10th-12th century, also occasionally elsewhere. [1] European feudal monarchies were a feature of the High Middle Ages, brought to an end by famine and the Black Death in the 14th century. [1] Unlike the popular impression, the European Middle Ages, especially from the 12 th century onwards, were an era of impressive scientific progress and innovation. [1] European Feudalism was a political-economic system that flourished in the Middle Ages, between the 10th and 13th centuries, and lasted much longer in some areas. [1] According to the usual narrative of the history of progress, medicine in the European Middle Ages - from around the 5th to the 15th centuries - was a formless mass of superstition and folk remedies; the very antithesis of science. [1] For late Middle Ages: Western European armies use full plate armored cavalry, Eastern European armies use massed mounted and armored (mail or plate+mail) archers. [1] A distinct European perspective on Asia emerged in the late Middle Ages. [1] It is possible to speak about feudal institutions without implying that all aspects of economic, social, and political life predominant in the greater part of the European Middle Ages were always present. [1] This close relationship between the Christian Church and European rulers is a key characteristic of political life in the Middle Ages. [1]

I've always had this fuzzy conception that the Middle Ages was kind of dark but not really, but I never had a clear idea that there was a nice separation between the two types right around 1000 AD. The bad things of the middle ages were those things inherited from latin culture, the good things from the northern "european" partly hunter gatherer cultures. [1] I suspect if you were to grab a bunch of random Europeans and Americans and asked them to describe the Dark Ages, you would get a lot of people talking about Braveheart or Robin Hood. [1] …surviving European writings from the Dark Ages (for instance, in the works of the 5th-century bishop Hydatius and the 8th-century theologian and historian St. Bede the Venerable). [1] A simplified map, ca. 1200 BC, showing the central Urnfield culture (red), the northern Urnfield culture (orange), the Knoviz culture (blue-gray), the Lusatian culture (purple), the Danubian culture (brown), the Terramare culture (blue), the West European Bronze Age (green) and the Nordic Bronze Age (yellow). [1] Besides the universities, other aspects of European culture in the central Middle Ages were connected with the rise of strong monarchies. [1] The bad things of the middle ages were those things inherited from latin culture, the good things from the northern "european" partly hunter gatherer cultures. [1] The first Renaissance of the Middle Ages was halted by a natural phenomenon, the Black Death, which killed over a third of Europeans, especially in the growing urban areas. [1] Some historians go as far as to regard that year as marking the beginning of the Middle Ages, an East European equivalent of 476, with Bayan conveniently replacing Odoacer as the first barbarian ruler after the end of Antiquity. [1] If by "medieval" the question really means the European Middle Ages, say around 1200, then long-distance overland travel is an adventure in itself. [1] Date: September 2, 2004 Source: Ohio State University Summary: Northern European men living during the early Middle Ages were nearly as tall as their modern-day American descendants, a finding that defies conventional wisdom about progress in living standards during the last millennium. [1] Proceedings of the second European Science Foundation workshop on the classical tradition in the middle ages and the Renaissance (pp. 137-152). [1] Def. the "period of primarily European history between the decline of the Western Roman Empire (antiquity) and the early modern period or the Renaissance; the time between c. 500 and 1500" is called the Middle Ages. [1] It is the period in European history which started at the end of Classical Antiquity (Ancient History), about the time of the fall of the Western Roman Empire, until the birth of the Renaissance period and the Age of Discovery. [1]

Began the period of European history known as the Dark Ages, when out of the ruins of the Western Empire grew a number of new successor kingdoms, ruled over by the barbarian, usually Germanic, peoples who inherited it. [1] The big divide here is between the Western and Eastern Empires, which does kind of undercut Scott's point about "naming periods and it's an isolated demand for rigour to say that it was just the Western European Dark Ages". [1]

And, as I've noted above, those "Dark Ages" actually saw western Europeans harness, create and develop agrarian techniques and technology that took it from being the economic (and cultural) backwater of the old Empire and ultimately turned it into the powerhouse that then expanded across the globe. [1] My concern is that 'dark ages' talk implies too much continuity: there is the grand narrative of Western Civi, in which 'we' (those of European descent, white people) flourished in antiquity, flailed in the dark, and then triumphed in modernity. [1] Embedded in the system of western European feudalism was the principle that a lord could not tax his subjects without their consent. [1] Japanese feudalism differed from the European pattern in several important respects: (1) the continuous importance of the imperial center in spite of its loss of political function; (2) the weakness, perhaps even total absence, of contractual elements in the relations between lords and vassals; (3) the full, personal, familistic expression of these relations; and (4) the lack of any representative institutions. [1] The term feudalism has been applied most regularly and commonly to many medieval European systems of social, economic, and political organization. [1] European activity has long received the bulk of the attention by historians concerned with the integration of the early modern world economy, but from Istanbul to Samarkhand, Cochin, Dhaka, Malacca, Hong Kong, Beijing, and Tokyo, they were not the most prominent players in most of the major sites of economic and political activity until the later nineteenth century. [1] The development of European feudalism begins in the 8th century, the time of the first Merovingians and Carolingians, with the interconnection of the granting of fiefs and the establishing of personal vassal-senior relations. [1] The Vikings were the first Europeans to land in North America; in the 10th century, they formed settlements in what is presently Greenland and Newfoundland. [1] Leif Erikson was an Icelandic explorer considered by some as the first European other than the Vikings on Greenland, to land in North America. [1] The Vikings are thought to be the first European explorers to arrive in North America, having landed in what is now Newfoundland, a present province of Canada, over 500 years before Columbus. [1]

While resembling the European model imported from Spain, the feudalism of Latin America was also characterized by racial divisions between the white Spanish elite and the Indian or mixed-race peasantry, as well as imported African slaves. [1] ” In conclusion, while feudalism has primarily been used in the European context, there have been numerous comparable systems in Latin America, East Asia, South Asia, and elsewhere, where the concept of feudalism may be applicable. [1] Less dramatically, but more importantly, Asia was the center of global trade in the early modern era, prompting Europeans to expend considerable time and energy to find a route to Asia. [1] The officially sponsored Ming voyages of admiral Zheng He (Cheng He), from 1405-1433, provide an interesting basis for comparison of the Chinese and European capabilities and goals of maritime trade and exploration at this time The fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Empire in 1453 was a pivotal reason for European exploration, as trade throughout the Ottoman Empire was difficult and unreliable. [1] Europeans wanted to trade for Chinese silk and porcelain, Indian cotton textiles and indigo, and the spices of Southeast Asia (such as cinnamon, nutmeg, cloves, and pepper). [1] Europeans began not only to buy this cloth for export to Europe, but to commission cloth of specific types for specific markets, and to take loans from local bankers and engage in commodities trades within the Indian Ocean system so as to raise the value of the merchant capital that they could re-export to Europe. [1] Marco Polo described which of the following at Kublai Khan's court that he had not encountered in Europe? A. The use of spies in foreign nations B. The interest of the Khan in the international sea trade and European shipbuilding techniques C. The use of paper money and coal and the practice of frequent bathing. [1] This made the items extremely expensive in Europe, especially since the Europeans had nothing to trade that the Asians wanted. [1] European technical advancements from the 12th to 14th centuries were either built on long-established techniques in medieval Europe, originating from Roman and Byzantine antecedents, or adapted from cross-cultural exchanges through trading networks with the Islamic world, China, and India. [1] During the period of the Enlightenment in Europe (1700s), European thinkers such as Voltaire, Leibniz, Quesnay and the Physiocrats are interested in Chinese philosophy in the 1700s. [1] Which of the following best compares European and Chinese merchants in society during the early 15th century A. European merchants were bound to their lords in the feudal system and Chinese merchants were from the noble class. [1] C. Chinese merchants were guaranteed government support while European merchants were independent persons of the towns. [1]

The seas were open to all merchants and not until the arrival of the Europeans would any single power attempt hegemony. [1] Only when the infrastructure existed to maintain unitary power--as with the European monarchies--did feudalism begin to yield to this new power structure and eventually disappear. [1] Outside a European context, the concept of feudalism is often used only by analogy (called semi-feudal ), most often in discussions of feudal Japan under the shōguns, and sometimes medieval and Gondarine Ethiopia. [1] The western European governments used feudalism to help the king keep control, but often this just caused more problems. [1] To protect themselves and their property, Western European communities and societies gradually developed the system which refer to as Feudalism. [1] Feudalism in India and in the Saracen and Ottoman civilizations was in many ways analogous to Western feudalism, but it proved less durable than its European counterpart. [1] Although feudalism in Japan, India, China, and Africa had a few common elements, those systems differed significantly from the European varieties. [1] Bloch's methodological premiss is that each society is unique and has to be understood in its own terms. (He only grudgingly admits, mentioning Japan specifically, that something like feudalism may have existed outside of the West European context.) [1] In order to attain security after the fall of the Roman Empire, against Germanic barbarians, Islamic invaders, and pagan enemies, European kingdoms gradually accepted the customs of feudalism. [1] In the period between 600 and 1450: A. European women gained an increasingly greater role in political life. [1] In the late 13th century, a Venetian explorer named Marco Polo became one of the first Europeans to travel the Silk Road to China. [1] The Spanish were the first Europeans to use enslaved Africans in the New World on islands such as Cuba and Hispaniola. [1] As European nations grew more powerful--especially Portugal, Spain, France, Great Britain, and the Netherlands--they began vying for control of the African slave trade, with little effect on local African and Arab trading. [1] European traders, mostly the Portuguese, began to move their activities down the western coast of Africa. [1] Historians disagree on exactly when European empires began to "rise" and Asian empires began to "fall." [1] While most Asian empires focused on their vast, rich inland empires and neglected their navies, Europeans began to excel in sailing and navigational technology. [1]

Upon discovering new lands through their naval explorations, Europeans soon began to migrate to and settle in lands outside their native continent. [1] Explorations of a new land to the west would become a legendary tale of the feared Viking pirates, and nearly 500 years would pass before another European saw the American continent. [1] Europeans invaded and colonized the Canary Islands during the 15th century, converting much of the land to the production of wine and sugar. [1] Even though 15th century China was much more powerful than Europe, the average European had much in common with his or her Asian counterpart. [1] By 1700, European capital invested in trading companies traveled regularly to Asia on ships insured and protected by European companies and governments, in order to secure goods produced on commission for sale and resale within Asian markets, with the goal of returning to Europe with cargo of sufficient value to generate substantial profits for investors. [1] The Indian Ocean became more like Central Asia in that all routes and sites became militarized as European competition accelerated over the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, as the Portuguese were joined by the Dutch, French, and British. b. [1] Europeans were so accustomed to combat: that when they first sailed into the Indian Ocean, the broadsides of their ships were armed with cannons. [1] Compared to European exploration in the Indian Ocean, that of the Chinese: A. used fewer and smaller ships. [1]

The connections between state revenue collection and commodities trades became very complex and the Europeans were surrounded by Asian "portfolio capitalists" (as they have been dubbed by Sanjay Subrahmanyam and Chris Bayly) who operated both in the so-called private and state sectors. [1] All of the following are true of the major Amerindian civilizations in Central and South America prior to the arrival of Europeans except: A. economies based on trade. [1]

You’ve left out arguably the most important European country during the putative "Dark Ages", namely Ireland. [1] The Dark Ages is usually referring to the first half of the Middle Ages from 500 to 1000 AD. The Middle Ages SOL WHI.9 The gradual decline of the Roman Empire ushered in an era of European history called the Middle Ages or Medieval Period. [1] The Early Middle Ages, also known as the Dark Ages, or medieval times, refers to that period in European history after the fall of the Roman Empire. [1]

The Dark Ages is generally considered as the early medieval period of the European history. [1] Medieval Era : The period of Western European history between the fall of Rome, around 476 A.D., and the beginning of the Renaissance, around 1450 A.D. Also known as the Middle Ages. [1] Middle Ages, period in Western European history that followed the disintegration of the West Roman Empire in the 4th and 5th cent. and lasted into the 15th cent., i.e., into the period of the Renaissance. [1] The Middle Ages is usually regarded as a period of European history from the fall of the Roman Empire in the West (5th century) to the fall of Constantinople (1453), or, more narrowly, from c. 1100 to 1453. [1] Middle Ages, the period in European history from the collapse of Roman civilization in the 5th century ce to the period of the Renaissance (variously interpreted as beginning in the 13th, 14th, or 15th century, depending on the region of Europe and on other factors). [1] Early modern Europe is the period of European history between the end of the Middle Ages and the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, roughly the late 15th century to the late 18th century. [1] The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three 'ages': the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times. [1] The High Middle Ages or High Medieval Period was the period of European history lasting from AD 1000 to 1250. [1] The High Middle Ages was the period of European history in the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries (1000-1300 CE) while recognizable nations were forming. [1] This is the first single-author study in over fifty years to offer an integrated appraisal of the early Middle Ages as a dynamic and formative period in European history. [1] Introduction: Our pocket dictionary defines the Middle Ages as 'the period of European History from about A.D. 500 to about 1500'. [1] These migrations marked the beginning of a new period of European history called the Middle Ages. [1] The period of European history extending from about 500 to 1400-1500 ce is traditionally known as the Middle Ages. [1] The Age of Discovery, also known as the Age of Exploration and the Great Navigations, was a period in European history from the early 15th century to the early 17th century. [1]

If this is really your true objection, let's just agree to call it the Western European Dark Ages, as long as we can also agree it existed and was bad. [1] Why was Western Europe so successful during the Middle Ages? What was the secret of that success? What did that society do right? Perhaps the easiest way to put it (and I bet you can guess) is that Western European society during the Middle Ages did an excellent job providing physical security, ethical guidance and emotional fulfillment to its members. [1] Western Civilization Final The revival of trade and commerce during the middle ages impacted European Society in many ways but it is important to know how and what caused the revival of trade and commerce and then how it really changed the future European Society. [1] An abstract term derived from the adjective ‘feudal’, and commonly used to highlight those features believed to be characteristic of western European society during the Middle Ages. [1] The Romanesque style architecture best reflect the ideals of the high medieval era as western European society at last emerged from the "Dark Ages" period. [1] Southeast European "Dark Ages" (c. 600-- c. 800) 89 Judging by the great number of cemeteries, both north and south of the Danube, that could be dated to this period, the eighth cen- tury witnessed a substantial growth of population, despite written evidence to the contrary. 415 There were simply more people around than in the seventh century. [1] Southeast European "Dark Ages" (c. 600-- c. 800) 79 ot qagans or of close members of their families. 16 Dated to the sec- ond halt ot the seventh century by means of coins minted for the emperors Constans II (641-668) and Constantine IV (668--685), the group ot assemblages in Ukraine to which Hlodosy belongs have been interpreted as princely burials of Kubrat’s family. [1] Southeast European "Dark Ages" (c. 600-- c. 800) 9i the same region of central Hungary between the Middle Danube and Tisza Rivers. [1] Southeast European "Dark Ages" (c. 600-- c. 800) 83 the neighboring Empire. [1] Papers from the Twenty-Seventh Spring Symposium of Byzantine Studies, Oxford, April /99J. ed. by C. Mango and G. Dagron (Aldershot: Variorum, 1 99s), pp. 1 3 1 -- Southeast European "Dark Ages" (c. 6oo-c. 800) 77 in what is today Austrian Carinthia and northern Slovenia. 10 Other, more belligerent Wends -- the preferred name for Slavs on the western fringes of the qaganate -- had by then established a powerful polity farther to the north or northwest. [1] Mommsen, vol. n (Berlin: Weidtnann, 1894), P- 497- 2 SOUTHEAST EUROPEAN "DARK AGES" (c. 6oo-c. 800) Not much is known about the last decades oi Roman (Byzantine) power in the Balkans. [1] Southeast European "Dark Ages" (c. 6oo-c. 800) 93 Danube and Tisza Rivers and of their tributaries. 54 With 400 to 600 mm of annual rainfall, the Hungarian Plain is an ecological niche very different from the steppes north of the Black Sea, for which the only possible adaptation was seasonal nomadism of a kind attested by later sources referring to Cumans or Mongols. [1] The Belegezites supplied Thessalonica with food during the siege ot 677. 73 Southeast European "Dark Ages" (c. 6oo-c. 800) not look at all like having been compiled on the basis of testimonies collected from refugees fleeing those territories to find shelter within the walls of Thessalonica. [1] Southeast European "Dark Ages" (c. 6oo-c. 800) 99 Avar-held territory to the north. [1] PP- 99-124- Southeast European "Dark Ages" (c. 600-- c. 800) 97 "king" Perbundos. [1] Southeast European "Dark Ages" ( c. 6oo-c. 800) 105 border in southern Thrace, where a number of cemeteries have been found showing striking parallels with burial assemblages in Macedo- nia and Albania. [1]

Analyze how European monarchies expanded their power at the expense of feudal lords and assess the growth and limitations of representative institutions in these monarchies. [1] Driven by the desire for raw materials, new trading outlets, and cheap labor, Europeans initiated an extensive slave trade out of West Africa. [1]

One of the oldest and most durable institutions in European history, feudalism emerged in the early medieval centuries, reproduced and reshaped itself century after century, and spread into newly colonized regions. [1] The decline of feudalism was a general phenomenon of European history that owed as much to the economic transformations of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries as it did to features inherent in the feudal system itself. [1]

Called the middle ages, the medieval ages were influential in European history. [1]

R wist a di studi bizantini e slain, voi. 4 (2002), pp. 39--46. 1 1 8 Southeastern Europe in the Middle Ages, 500-1250 otherwise.' 3 Excavations in Sparta have so far indicated an expansion of the early medieval occupation beginning with the mid-8oos, but nothing confirms the picture drawn on the basis of the Chronicle of Monemvasia and showing a massive repopulation with people from the themes in Asia Minor during the reign of Nicephorus 1. [1] The study of medieval Southeastern Europe requires an expansion of our understanding of the Middle Ages and of the definition of Europe. [1]

During the 8th to 10th centuries, not usually counted as part of the Migration Period but still within the Early Middle Ages, new waves of migration, first of the Magyars and later of the Turkic peoples, as well as Viking expansion from Scandinavia, threatened the newly established order of the Frankish Empire in Central Europe. [1] The High Middle Ages was a period of tremendous expansion of population. [6] Farmers grew wheat well north into Scandinavia, and wine grapes in northern England, although the maximum expansion of vineyards appears to occur within the Little Ice Age period. [1] This expansion in turn played a major role in the many other transformations--social, political, and cultural--of the early modern age. [1] To understand both the history of modern Europe and the United States requires a grasp of the variety of institutions, ideas, and styles that took shape in western Christendom during this era of expansion and innovation. [1] Janet Abu Lughod argues plausibly that the so-called "rise of Europe" after 1500 followed a mysterious period of decline in the Chinese part of the system, and that in the 1300s, it was actually the vast expansion in production in China that was most responsible for the integration of the trading system -- because all roads led to China in the medieval trading world. [1] The 16th century was a period of vigorous economic expansion. [7] What are the root causes of the spectacular economic expansion and cultural blooming of the High Middle Ages after 500 years of so-called Dark. [6]

Course description: This course will survey the political, military, religious, social, economic, and cultural history of Europe in the high and late middle ages, c. [1] Nothing else is known about Organa, and the Onogundurs are otherwise not known from earlier sources. 78 Southeastern Europe in the Middle Ages, 500-1250 history of friendship between him and Emperor Heraclius. 13 If so, then his revolt against the Avars, which broke out in 63 1 or 632, could not have been better timed to serve the political and military inter- ests of the Empire. [1]

The military organization of the Middle Ages was a direct reflection of the political, social, and economic decentralization of feudalism. [1] Feudalism controlled the political, economic and military system of the middle ages. [1] If we define feudalism as the entire system of obligation between lords, clergy, and peasants, including military obligations and manorialism as the narrower set of economic relations between the peasants (or serfs) who worked the land and the lords who owned the land, both systems were challenged and undermined by the growth of towns in the Middle Ages. [1] Feudalism was a political and military arrangement between a lord of the Middle Ages and his vassals. [1] Historians often describe feudalism as the military and judicial customs of Middle Ages that were established during the 9 th and 15 th centuries. [1] Feudalism was a combination of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries. [1] Feudalism was a set of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that was determined by the ownership of land. [1] Feudalism itself decayed and effectively disappeared in most of Western Europe by about 1500, partly since the military power of kings shifted from armies consisting of the nobility to professional fighters (effectively reducing the nobility's power), but also because the Black Death reduced the nobility's hold on the lower classes. [1]

Along with new navigational techniques such as the dry compass, the Jacob's staff, and the astrolabe, these allowed economic and military control of the seas adjacent to Europe and enabled the global navigational achievements of the dawning Age of Exploration. [1] Dc iidmini<tt\mdo imperio 51, pp. 256--257. 41 204 Southeastern Europe in the Middle Ages, 500-1250 lofty titles as that of protospatharios and equal in rank with the military governor of the province, is an indication of relative prosperity. [1] Without a dominant centralized power or overarching cultural hub, Europe experienced political, social, and military discord during this time. [1] In Europe, new military technologies eventually tipped the balance of power in favor of larger and expanding states that could afford to develop the latest war inventions and maintain standing armies. [1] In feudalism, a lord gave his most trusted men, known as vassals, land and power over all the people living there, and in return they swore loyalty to him and promised to give him a share of their taxes and provide military support whenever called upon. [1] Feudalism: A political and economic system of Europe from the 9th to about the 15th century based on holding all land in fief or fee and the resulting relation of lord to vassal and characterized by homage, legal and military service of tenants, and forfeiture. [1] Pages 382-386 or your own device Across 2 loyalty to lord that required military service to be performed 4 person who gave land to a vassal 5 land given to a knight for his service 7 obligation of vassal to lord 8 person who accepted this land Down 1 medieval economic system associated with feudalism 3 high skilled soldier who fought on horseback 6 peasants on a manor Feudalism Crossword Each person is to complete the crossword puzzle below. [1]

KEY TOPICS Feudalism in Middle Ages was a social, political, and religious structure which was based on the exchange of land for military services and or cash rent. [1] Feudalism applied only to the military and noble class, while the manorial system dealt with peasants.Under feudalism, the lords, the bigger landowning nobles, promised to protect their vassals, lesser nobles, and granted them fiefs of land in return for loyalty and military services. [1] Feudalism represented a system in which the occupants and users of the land they lived and worked on were not the owners; they were "tenants" of the "sovereign" - the Lord of the Manor - who legitimized his authority by claiming to offer protection to the occupants in the form of military service. [1] Those kings helped to prepare the way and the road to the system of feudalism by following Charlemagne's example, method and belief of rewarding knights with land and privileges in return for military service. [1] This differs from feudalism, in which a noble could build whatever they desired on their lot of land so long as they provided the king with military protection ("Feudalism"). [1] At the heart of the social, political, and military structure of medieval feudalism, lies the feudal pyramid. [1] The French historian Marc Bloch, arguably the most influential 20th-century medieval historian., approached feudalism not so much from a legal and military point of view but from a sociological one, presenting in Feudal Society (1939; English 1961) a feudal order not limited solely to the nobility. [1] In contradistinction to Bloch, the Belgian historian François-Louis Ganshof defined feudalism from a narrow legal and military perspective, arguing that feudal relationships existed only within the medieval nobility itself. [1] In sum, Byzantine feudalism was characterized by the relative predominance of economically independent small estates combined with a growing political decentralization--without, however, the concomitant development of an over-all system of vassalage, a feudal-chivalrous military class, or special feudal political institutions. [1] According to Platt and Matthews (2000), Feudalism is "a military and political system based on personal loyalty and kinship". [1] The Ming defeated the Mongol conquerors in 1368 and reasserted Chinese military and political authority on land and sea. [1] Phase One: the militarization of the sea, 1500-1600 Vasco da Gama rounded Africa in 1498 and forced rulers in the ports in the Indian Ocean system to pay tribute and to allow settlements of Portuguese military seamen who engaged in trade, supported conversion, acquired local lands, and established a loose network of imperial authority over the sea lanes, taxing ships in transit in return for protection. [1] Trace major migratory and military movements of pastoral peoples of Asia and Africa and analyze the consequences of these movements for agrarian states and societies of Eurasia and Africa. [1] The demand for slaves for both military and domestic purposes increased particularly in central Eurasia, parts of Africa, and the Eastern Mediterranean. [1]

Nowhere, however, were they the centres of military and lordly power they had been in the high Middle Ages. [1] At the opposite end of Eurasia, Western and Central Europe emerged as a new center of Christian civilization, expanding in agricultural production, population, commerce, and military might. [1] Relying on a powerful military élite, Tamar was able to build on the successes of her predecessors to consolidate an empire which dominated vast lands spanning from present-day southern Russia on the Black Sea to the Caspian Sea. [1]

RANKED SELECTED SOURCES(12 source documents arranged by frequency of occurrence in the above report)

1. (216) European Military Expansion (1000-1450)

2. (7) World History Era 5 - Public History Initiative | National Center for History in the Schools

3. (5) A Quick Guide to the World History of Globalization

4. (4) AP World History 600-1450 C.E. (part 2) Flashcards | Quizlet

5. (3) High Middle Ages - Wikipedia

6. (2) Early modern Europe - Wikipedia

7. (2) World History Standards Relating to Japan | US-China Institute

8. (2) Post-Classical (600 CE to 1450 CE) -- Freemanpedia

9. (2) High Middle Ages (Feudalism)

10. (1) List of conflicts in Europe - Wikipedia

11. (1) The Expansion of Europe | Boundless US History

12. (1) History of Europe - The emergence of modern Europe, 1500-1648 |

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