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indus Valley Civilization Irrigation System

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indus Valley Civilization Irrigation System

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  • The Indus Valley Civilization stands as one of the great early civilizations, alongside ancient Egypt and Sumerian Civilization, as a place where human settlements organized into cities, invented a system of writing and supported an advanced culture.(More...)
  • The Nile valley in Egypt had been home to agricultural settlements as early as 5500 BC, but the growth of Egypt as a civilization began around 3100 BC. A third civilization grew up along the Indus River around 2600 BC, in parts of what are now India and Pakistan.(More...)
  • Most likely, irrigation systems began with small springs and in small drainages, and as engineering techniques were developed, they could be applied to larger rivers and to larger areas of plains.(More...)
  • "Today the Indus system feeds the largest irrigation scheme in the world, immobilizing the river in channels and behind dams.(More...)
  • In order to fully utilize the river water resources, the IBIS has emerged as the largest contiguous irrigation system in the world.(More...)
  • The people of Indus prospered on the foundations of an agriculture based system of irrigation and fertility, maintained by silt-bearing floods.(More...)

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  • In 2001, archaeologists studying the remains of two men from Mehrgarh, Pakistan made the startling discovery that the people of Indus civilization, even from the early Harappan periods, had knowledge of medicine and dentistry.(More...)
  • Built in the valleys of the Indus and Ghaggar-Hakra rivers and their tributaries, the earliest settlements began to appear about 3300 BC. Termed the Ravi phase (named for the nearby Ravi River), little is known about this ancient period as present-day sites are covered by centuries of deposits; nonetheless, archaeologists have uncovered evidence of "mud-bricked houses equipped with hearths," as well as the means to make stone tools and ceramics.(More...)
  • Once extending more than 1 million square kilometers across the plains of the Indus River from the Arabian Sea to the Ganges, over what is now Pakistan, northwest India and eastern Afghanistan, the Indus civilization was the largest -- but least known -- of the first great urban cultures that also included Egypt and Mesopotamia.(More...)



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The Indus Valley Civilization stands as one of the great early civilizations, alongside ancient Egypt and Sumerian Civilization, as a place where human settlements organized into cities, invented a system of writing and supported an advanced culture. [1] Over 140 ancient towns and cities belonging to the Indus Valley Civilization have been discovered along its course. [1] A sophisticated and technologically advanced urban culture is evident in the Indus Valley Civilization. [1] Some scholars argue that a sunken city, linked with the Indus Valley Civilization, off the coast of India was the Dwawka of the Mahabharata, and, dating this at 7500 B.C.E. or perhaps ever earlier, they make it a rival to Jericho (circa 10,000-11,000 B.C.E. ) as the oldest city on earth (Howe 2002). [1] The Indus Valley Civilization (IVC), was an ancient civilization thriving along the lower Indus River and the Ghaggar River-Hakra River in what is now Pakistan and western India from the twenty-eighth century B.C.E. to the eighteenth century B.C.E. Another name for this civilization is the Harappan Civilization of the Indus Valley, in reference to its first excavated city of Harappa. [1] Var's work is extremely significant since it also challenges the idea that the Indus Valley Civilization was pre-Aryan and that the Aryans invaded or migrated from the European zone. [1] A harp-like instrument depicted on an Indus seal and two shell objects from Lothal confirm that stringed musical instruments were in use in the ancient Indus Valley Civilization. [1] Some of those who accept this hypothesis advocate designating the Indus Valley culture the "Sarasvati-Sindhu Civilization," Sindhu being the ancient name of the Indus River. [1] It has long been claimed that the Indus Valley was the home of a literate civilization, but this has been challenged on linguistic and archaeological grounds. [1] The Indus civilization was predated by the first farming cultures in south Asia, which emerged in the hills of what is now called Balochistan, Pakistan, to the west of the Indus Valley. [1] Among the Indus civilization's mysteries, however, are fundamental questions, including its means of subsistence and the causes for its sudden disappearance beginning around 1900 B.C.E. Lack of information until recently led many scholars to negatively contrast the Indus Valley legacy with what is known about its contemporaries, Mesopotamia and ancient Egypt, implying that these have contributed more to human development. [1] The Indus Valley Civilization is also known as the Harappan Civilization, after Harappa, the first of its sites to be excavated in the 1920s, in what was then the Punjab province of British India, and now is Pakistan. [2] The Indus Valley Civilization (IVC) was a Bronze Age civilization (3300-1300 BCE; mature period 2600-1900 BCE) extending from what today is northeast Afghanistan to Pakistan and northwest India. [2] In 2001, archaeologists studying the remains of two men from Mehrgarh, Pakistan, made the discovery that the people of the Indus Valley Civilization, from the early Harappan periods, had knowledge of proto-dentistry. [2] Combined with monsoon-associated periods of flooding and drought, these changes in river patterns splintered the once-monolithic block of the Indus Valley Civilization. [3] Out of the lot, Mohenjo-daro became the largest city of the Indus Valley Civilization and holds the multiple distinction of being one of the world's first major urban centers, as well as, at the time, one of the most sophisticated cities in the world and a global architectonical and engineering masterpiece. [3] A sophisticated and technologically advanced urban culture is evident in the Indus Valley civilization. [2] Outposts of the Indus Valley civilization were excavated as far west as Sutkagan Dor in Baluchistan, as far north as at Shortugai on the Amu Darya (the river's ancient name was Oxus) in current Afghanistan, as far east as at Alamgirpur, Uttar Pradesh, India and as far south as at Malwan, Surat Dist., India. [2] The Indus Valley Civilization encompassed most of Pakistan and parts of northwestern India, Afghanistan and Iran, extending from Balochistan in the west to Uttar Pradesh in the east, northeastern Afghanistan to the north and Maharashtra to the south. [2]

The Indus Valley Civilization site was hit by almost 10 feet of water as the Sutlej Yamuna link canal overflowed. [2] Whatever the reason, by around 1700 BCE, most of the Indus Valley Civilization cities had been abandoned. [3] The ruins of Mohenjo daro ("Hill of the Dead"), one of the jewels of the Indus Valley Civilization and the ancient world. [3] By around 1800 BC, the Indus Valley Civilization was starting to crack. [3] In an interview with the Deccan Herald on 12 August 2012, Asko Parpola clarified his position by admitting that Sanskrit-speakers had contributed to the Indus Valley Civilization. [2] Much of the history of the Indus valley civilization is unknown. [4] The Indus Valley Civilization did not disappear suddenly, and many elements of the Indus Civilization can be found in later cultures. [2] The mature phase of the Harappan civilization lasted from c. 2600 to 1900 BCE. With the inclusion of the predecessor and successor cultures - Early Harappan and Late Harappan, respectively - the entire Indus Valley Civilization may be taken to have lasted from the 33rd to the 14th centuries BCE. Two terms are employed for the periodization of the IVC: Phases and Eras. [2] Compare with the very different interpretations in Possehl, Gregory L. (2002), The Indus Civilization: A Contemporary Perspective, Rowman Altamira, pp.237-245, ISBN 978-0-7591-0172-2, and Michael Staubwasser et al., "Climate Change at the 4.2 ka BP Termination of the Indus Valley Civilization and Holocene South Asian Monsoon Variability," GRL 30 (2003), 1425. [5] Built around 2600 BCE, it was one of the largest settlements of the ancient Indus Valley Civilization, and one of the world's earliest major urban settlements, contemporaneous with the civilizations of ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia, and Crete. [2] Mohenjo Daro sat beneath the soil for thousands of years, a preserved relic of the ancient Indus Valley civilization. [2]

One of the most advanced and mysterious ancient society, the Indus River Valley civilization, was completely lost to history until the 1920s. [3] In the meantime, archaeologists have scrambled to understand the Indus River Valley civilization but we've been able to confirm frustratingly little from all we've found. [3] The Indus River Valley Civilization started about 2500 B.C.E. along the south-western part of the Indus River. [6]

The geography of the Indus Valley put the civilizations that arose there in a highly similar situation to those in Egypt and Peru, with rich agricultural lands being surrounded by highlands, desert, and ocean. [2] It has long been claimed that the Indus Valley was the home of a literate civilization, but this has recently been challenged on linguistic and archaeological grounds. [2] Located in the Indus Valley on the western border of India, the Harappan civilization is one of the largest ancient civilizations that has "flown under the radar" as very few people have heard of it. [7] Maugh II, Thomas H. "Eastward migration of monsoons created, then killed the Harappan civilization in Indus Valley - Los Angeles Times." articles.latimes.com. http://articles.latimes.com/2012/may/28/science/la-sci-sn-indus-harappan-20120528 (accessed July 10, 2013). [7]

Steatite seals have images of animals, people (perhaps gods), and other types of inscriptions, including the yet un-deciphered writing system of the Indus Valley Civilisation. [5] While the Indus Valley Civilisation is generally characterised as a literate society on the evidence of these inscriptions, this description has been challenged by Farmer, Sproat, and Witzel (2004) who argue that the Indus system did not encode language, but was instead similar to a variety of non-linguistic sign systems used extensively in the Near East and other societies, to symbolise families, clans, gods, and religious concepts. [5] The cities of the Indus Valley Civilisation had "social hierarchies, their writing system, their large planned cities and their long-distance trade mark them to archaeologists as a full-fledged 'civilisation.'" [5] The religion and belief system of the Indus Valley people have received considerable attention, especially from the view of identifying precursors to deities and religious practices of Indian religions that later developed in the area. [5] The Indus River Valley Civilization created sophisticated irrigation systems that helped irrigate crops. [8]

Each of the four river valley civilizations used irrigation in ways that were similar and different to each other. [9] Irrigation was vital for the farming in the early river valley civilizations. [9]

Therefore their irrigation system was passive, and early Egyptian civilization depended largely on one winter crop per year. [10] Annual recharge to ground water system of this Indus plain is estimated around 55 MAF, out of which about 48 MAF is within the commands of Indus basin irrigation system (IBIS). [11] Description: It is an assignment on the indus basin irrigation system in pakistan. [11] While the river allowed them to re-establish villages and farms, these communities could not dream to produce the same agricultural surplus as the Indus River basin and the extensive irrigation systems built there. [3]

The design of the irrigation system depended critically on knowing in advance the height of the annual flood, and the Egyptians developed a system of "Nilometers" at various points along the valley. [10] Irrigation systems of Ancient Civilizations By: Amit Parikh Irrigation systems allowed early Egyptians to control the water from the Nile river, and allowed them to use the water for many things. [9]

Water/ Irrigation Systems Li We no I "Sometime in the third millennium B. C., the Harappan civilization of the Indus Valley built water systems that in many ways would rival and surpass any other water system, except that of the Romans, until the middle of the 19th century [12]

His book, Vedic Glossary on Indus Seals argues that Greek evolved from old-Brahmi, which developed originally from the Indus Valley script. [1] Historians call this discovery the Indus Valley civilization and tell us that it was founded about 3300 BCE, when some farming settlements grew into sophisticated cities. [13] The Indus Valley civilization, once located in what is today Pakistan, was founded about 3300 BCE, reached its peak around 2500 BCE, and flourished until about 1900 BCE, when it began to decline. [13] In this lesson, we will explore the mysterious Indus Valley civilization, which was located in modern Pakistan and reached its high point between about 2500 BCE and 1900 BCE. [13] Scholars disagree about why this mysterious Indus Valley civilization declined and disappeared, but around 1900 BCE, it began to falter. [13] Beginning about 1900 BCE, the Indus Valley civilization began to decline. [13] Whatever happened, by 1500 BCE, the Indus Valley civilization had disappeared into the fog of history, not to be rediscovered for many centuries. [13] The Indus Valley civilization remained hidden for centuries, lost in the ravages of time, buried under mounds of rubble. [13] The Indus Valley civilization reached its heyday beginning about 2600 BC, and it was the remnants of that society that led to its discovery by modern scholars. [14] By looking at evidence buried for centuries, historians have discovered quite a bit about the Indus Valley civilization, but many mysteries still remain about daily life, types of government, religion, and even the civilization's decline. [13] The Indus River Valley Civilization had a caste social system in which people were born into a particular social class that they were unable to change. [8] Archaeologists have excavated only a fraction of the many cities and settlements of the Indus River Valley civilization, so our understanding of the region is still evolving. [15] Archaeologists have not yet deciphered the writing of the Indus River Valley civilization, so their form of government, their religious beliefs, and the social structure of their society remain a mystery. [15] The economy of the Indus River Valley Civilization was based on farming. [8] One of the most noteworthy contributions of the Indus River Valley Civilization was the founding of the polytheistic religion of Hinduism. [8]

Archaeology indicates that the idea of karez irrigation originated in the Indus Valley Civilization of Pakistan, while philology, method of construction, migration of karez technocrats support the view that the technology was introduced from Afghanistan and not from Iran as is generally accepted. [16] They have also found that even the smallest house at the edge of each town was linked to that town's central drainage system. - They not only drained waste water out, but also had a system to pump fresh water into the homes, similar to modern plumbing. u After the decline of the Indus Valley Civilization, the science of engineering disappeared from India. u Today, many towns in So. [12] The Indus Valley Civilization, beginning sometime around 2300 BC, developed in two major city areas along the river valleys of the Indus, Ravi, and Sutlej, just beneath the Himalayan Mountains in modern Pakistan and Northeast India. [17] The Indus Valley civilization was started in 3300 BC. The Dravidians were native people that established the civilization. [18]

In Egypt, floodwater from the Nile is already used for cultivation during pharaoh period. 1 Domestic wastewater is used for irrigation by the mesopotamians, Indus valley, and Minoan civilization. [19] Nearing the end of the Indus Valley Civilization, the cities began to wither and the strong economy slowly deteriorated. [17] Indoor plumbing was first introduced by the Indus Valley civilization. [18] ROOTS & EVOLUTION OF IN DUS VALLEY CIVILIZATION Earliest civilizations in Indus Valley was discovered in 1856 by a railroad crew. [12]

From 2500-1700 BC, the Indus River Valley Civilization, also called the Harappan Civilization, settled along the southern Indus River. [8] Those bricks were the first clues to the ancient civilization that once thrived in the Indus Valley. [15] The Chinese began a fortified wall that eventually spanned (depending on whom you ask) as much as 13,000 miles, and the people of the Indus Valley? Well, they had an excellent sanitation system. [14] The Indus Basin Irrigation System of Pakistan has three large dams, eight five small dams, nineteen barrages, twelve inter-river link canals, forty-five canal commands and 0.7 million tube wells. [20]


The Nile valley in Egypt had been home to agricultural settlements as early as 5500 BC, but the growth of Egypt as a civilization began around 3100 BC. A third civilization grew up along the Indus River around 2600 BC, in parts of what are now India and Pakistan. [4] It is believed that the ancient peo ple of the valley of Indus were ou tstanding in the field of agriculture and industry as compared to the civilization of contemporary period in Egypt and Mesopotamia. [11]

The Indus Valley Civilisation ( IVC ), or Harappan Civilisation, was a Bronze Age civilisation (3300-1300 BCE ; mature period 2600-1900 BCE) mainly in the northwestern regions of South Asia, extending from what today is northeast Afghanistan to Pakistan and northwest India. [5] In 2001, archaeologists studying the remains of two men from Mehrgarh, Pakistan, discovered that the people of the Indus Valley Civilisation, from the early Harappan periods, had knowledge of proto- dentistry. [5] The mature phase of the Harappan civilisation lasted from c. 2600 to 1900 BCE. With the inclusion of the predecessor and successor cultures -- Early Harappan and Late Harappan, respectively -- the entire Indus Valley Civilisation may be taken to have lasted from the 33rd to the 14th centuries BCE. It is part of the Indus Valley Tradition, which also includes the pre-Harappan occupation of Mehrgarh, the earliest farming site of the Indus Valley. [5] The Indus Valley Civilisation is also named the Harappan civilisation after Harappa, the first of its sites to be excavated in the 1920s, in what was then the Punjab province of British India. [5] An Indus Valley site has been found on the Oxus River at Shortughai in northern Afghanistan, in the Gomal River valley in northwestern Pakistan, at Manda,Jammu on the Beas River near Jammu, India, and at Alamgirpur on the Hindon River, only 28 km from Delhi. [2] Indus Valley sites have been found most often on rivers, but also on the ancient seacoast, for example, Balakot, and on islands, for example, Dholavira. [2] According to Rao, Hakra Ware has been found at Bhirrana, and is pre-Harappan, dating to the 8th-7th millennium BCE. Hakra Ware culture is a material culture which is contemporaneous with the early Harappan Ravi phase culture (3300-2800 BCE) of the Indus Valley. [5] A sophisticated and technologically advanced urban culture is evident in the Indus Valley Civilisation making them the first urban centre in the region. [5] The Indus Valley Civilisation has also been called by some the "Sarasvati culture", the "Sarasvati Civilisation", the "Indus-Sarasvati Civilisation" or the "Sindhu-Saraswati Civilisation", as the Ghaggar-Hakra river is identified by some with the mythological Sarasvati river, suggesting that the Indus Valley Civilisation was the Vedic civilisation as perceived by traditional Hindu beliefs. [5] According to Parpola, the culture migrated into the Indus Valley and became the Indus Valley Civilisation. [5] Outposts of the Indus Valley civilisation were excavated as far west as Sutkagan Dor in Pakistani Balochistan, as far north as at Shortugai on the Amu Darya (the river's ancient name was Oxus ) in current Afghanistan, as far east as at Alamgirpur, Uttar Pradesh, India and as far south as at Malwan, in modern-day Surat, Gujarat, India. [5] The Indus Valley Civilisation (IVC) encompassed much of Pakistan, western India, and northeastern Afghanistan ; extending from Pakistani Balochistan in the west to Uttar Pradesh in the east, northeastern Afghanistan in the north and Maharashtra in the south. [5]

The Indus Valley Civilisation site was hit by almost 10 feet of water as the Sutlej Yamuna link canal overflowed. [5] Toilets that used water were used in the Indus Valley Civilisation. [5] Several periodisations are employed for the periodisation of the IVC. The most commonly used classifies the Indus Valley Civilisation into Early, Mature and Late Harappan Phase. [5] Late Harappan from 1900 to 1300 BC, marked by violence, breakdowns in social order, the abandonment of most settlements, and the eventual extinction of the Indus Valley people. [3] Many Indus Valley (or Harappan) sites have been discovered along the Ghaggar-Hakra beds. Among them are: Rupar, Rakhigarhi, Sothi, Kalibangan, and Ganwariwala. [2] An alternative approach by Shaffer divides the broader Indus Valley Tradition into four eras, the pre-Harappan "Early Food Producing Era," and the Regionalisation, Integration, and Localisation eras, which correspond roughly with the Early Harappan, Mature Harappan, and Late Harappan phases. [5] During 4300-3200 BCE of the chalcolithic period (copper age), the Indus Valley Civilisation area shows ceramic similarities with southern Turkmenistan and northern Iran which suggest considerable mobility and trade. [5] Edakkal caves in Wayanad district of Kerala contain drawings that range over periods from as early as 5000 BCE to 1000 BCE. The youngest group of paintings have been in the news for a possible connection to the Indus Valley Civilisation. [5]

The Indus Valley Civilisation is named after the Indus Valley, where the first remains were found. [5] Historians such as Heinrich Zimmer and Thomas McEvilley believe that there is a connection between first Jain Tirthankara Rishabhanatha and the Indus Valley civilisation. [5] Dholavira, one of the largest cities of Indus Valley Civilisation. [5] The geography of the Indus Valley put the civilisations that arose there in a highly similar situation to those in Egypt and Peru, with rich agricultural lands being surrounded by highlands, desert, and ocean. [5] David Gordon White cites three other mainstream scholars who "have emphatically demonstrated" that Vedic religion derives partially from the Indus Valley Civilisations. [5] Sailing was also, by all evidence, serious business for the Indus Valley people, who built boats and sea-worthy ships. [3] However the function of the female figurines in the life of Indus Valley people remains unclear, and Possehl does not regard the evidence for Marshall's hypothesis to be "terribly robust". [5] According to Jean-Francois Jarrige, farming had an independent origin at Mehrgarh, despite the similarities which he notes between Neolithic sites from eastern Mesopotamia and the western Indus valley, which are evidence of a "cultural continuum" between those sites. [5] Although there is no incontrovertible proof that this was indeed the case, the distribution of Indus-type artifacts on the Oman peninsula, on Bahrain and in southern Mesopotamia makes it plausible that a series of maritime stages linked the Indus Valley and the Gulf region." [5] They swept through the Indus Valley area and eventually controlled most of modern day India. [7] A possible natural reason for the IVC's decline is connected with climate change that is also signaled for the neighboring areas of the Middle East: The Indus valley climate grew significantly cooler and drier from about 1800 BCE, linked to a general weakening of the monsoon at that time. [2]

Long-term problems of irrigation may not appear for a long time: today, for example, the valleys and basins of the San Joaquin, Rio Grande, Indus, Nile, Murray-Darling, Jordan, and Tigris-Euphrates are being irrigated, with progressive and visible increases in salinization and water-logging, and no remedy in sight. [10] McElreavy & Quintana-Murci (2005) note that "both the frequency distribution and estimated expansion time (~7,000 YBP) of this lineage suggest that its spread in the Indus Valley may be associated with the expansion of local farming groups during the Neolithic period." [5] Such was the glory of the ancient peo ple of Indus valley; perhaps they were the first sedentary farmers of the world. [11] "It is generally assumed that most trade between the Indus Valley (ancient Meluhha?) and western neighbors proceeded up the Persian Gulf rather than overland. [5] The Bronze Age village and urban societies of the Indus Valley are some-thing of an anomaly, in that archaeologists have found little indication of local defense and regional warfare. [5] The metals used to make these things are not found in the Indus Valley. [2] The Indus Valley Civilisation did not disappear suddenly, and many elements of the Indus Civilisation appear in later cultures. [5] The pointed scarcity of weapons makes it more likely that the Indus Valley people were led by a number of leaders representing each major community or cluster of communities, all working together voluntarily. [3] It's possible that this ability to carry water is what warranted, at least in part, the use of more costly and harder to produce fire-baked bricks in the Indus Valley. [3] There also must have existed a theatrical tradition in the Indus valley cities, but of this we have no literary numismatic or any other material proof. [2] Earlier studies (prior to 1980) often assumed that food production was imported to the Indus Valley by a single linguistic group ("Aryans") and/or from a single area. [2] One Indus Valley seal shows a seated figure with a horned headdress, possibly tricephalic and possibly ithyphallic, surrounded by animals. [5] Many Indus Valley seals show animals, with some depicting them being carried in processions, while others show chimeric creations. [5] Right: A collection of Indus valley seals with their molds. [3] Studies of tooth enamel from individuals buried at Harappa suggest that some residents had migrated to the city from beyond the Indus Valley. [5] Art of the Bronze Age: southeastern Iran, western Central Asia, and the Indus Valley. [5]

Mesopotamia was the earliest river valley civilization, starting to form around 3500 BC. The civilization was created after regular trading started relationships between multiple cities and states around the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. [4] The prosperity of the Nile valley civilizations has depended throughout recorded history on the efficiency with which the central government has organized the best use of the river water. [10]

REGIONAI. SPREAD - Sites cover mostof the modern Pakistan and northwestern India - Area covered is about 1.3 million square miles - The largest among the old world civilizations - Over 1050 sites; scattered across the area - There are many mountains. valleys and plains near and in the Indus River Valley Civilization which is actually a very dry plateau. [12] If it is true that the Aryans invaded the Indus Valley at the time when the civilization was withering, it was no wonder that they had no trouble forcing the people of Indus out of the area. [17]


Most likely, irrigation systems began with small springs and in small drainages, and as engineering techniques were developed, they could be applied to larger rivers and to larger areas of plains. [10] Egypt also created irrigation systems from its local river, the Nile River, more intricate than previous systems. [4] India The ancient irrigation system used in China is called the Dujiangyan system. [9] Irrigation systems in ancient Mesopotamia had major components such as canals, gated ditches, levees, and gates. [9] We have entered into 21st century with world's largest and unified irrigation system that consists of three major reservoirs (Chashma, Mangla, and Tarbela); 1 8 barrages (Ferozepur, Sulemanki, Islam, Balloki, Marala, Trimmu, Panjnad, Kalabagh, Sukkur, Kotri, Taunsa, Guddu, Chashma, Mailsi, Sidhnai, Rasul, Qadirabad, and Marala); 12 link canals; 45 irrigation canals; and over 107,000 water courses and millions of farm ch annels & field ditches. [11] In any irrigation system, the farmers most downstream are those most likely to be short of water in a dry year, or to receive the most polluted water. [10]


"Today the Indus system feeds the largest irrigation scheme in the world, immobilizing the river in channels and behind dams. [21] The ancient people of the Indus River Valley had a highly advanced knowledge of mathematics and a sophisticated system of weights and measures. [15] The Indus River Valley is surrounded by mountains and seas that protected the people from attacks by other civilizations. [8] Thousands of clay tablets indicate that the people of the Indus River Valley developed a writing system that may be even older than Sumerian writing. [15]

Arising in Pakistan and western India, the Indus Valley culture eventually covered an area of about 775,000 square miles - larger than either Egypt or Mesopotamia. [14] Some evidence suggests the Indus Valley cities were invaded by nomadic warriors who destroyed their advanced culture. [15] It is also possible that the people of the Indus Valley cities may have unintentionally destroyed their environment. [15] In any event, by about 1800 BC, most of the cities of the Indus Valley had been abandoned. [14] The great Indus Valley cities slowly disappeared and would soon be buried in rubble, not to be rediscovered until many centuries later. [13] As such, many have speculated that the people of the Indus Valley were peaceful. [14] Some historians believe that the people of the Indus Valley were attacked by invading Aryans. [13] Other historians have suggested that some kind of natural disaster led to the decline and disappearance of the Indus Valley peoples, perhaps a great flood or a drought or an earthquake. [13] Some believe that this change in climate was regional, and may have caused a drought in the Indus Valley that devastated that region’s agricultural production as well. [14] Much of this writing appears in conjunction with the stone seals that archaeologists keep finding in the Indus Valley. [13]

The Yellow River Valley Civilization was located in present-day China and founded between 4000 and 1700 BC. The name "Yellow" comes from the the yellow silt carried across the land from the rivers. [8] The Yellow River Valley Civilization developed silk fabric, which became a much sought-after commodity for many traders on the Silk Road. [8] The economy of the Yellow River Valley Civilization was based on farming. [8] The Yellow River Valley Civilization was divided into several territories that were ruled by a king. [8] This section will focus on the last two of the four river valley civilizations. [8] The Yellow Valley Civilization used astronomy to develop an annual calendar. [8]


In order to fully utilize the river water resources, the IBIS has emerged as the largest contiguous irrigation system in the world. [20] An irrigation system of canals provided a reliable source of water for growing wheat and barley. [15] Hunting and fishing supplemented people's diets, and farmers developed irrigation systems to make good use of their water supply. [13] The prehistoric people who lived outside the Hohokam culture area also constructed irrigation systems, but none was of near the grand scale as the Hohokam irrigation systems. [22] Even though the Indians of Arizona began limited farming nearly 3,000 years ago, the construction of the Hohokam irrigation systems probably did not begin until a few centuries C.E. It is unknown who originated the idea of irrigation in Arizona, whether it was local technology or introduced to them from cultures in Mexico. [22]


The people of Indus prospered on the foundations of an agriculture based system of irrigation and fertility, maintained by silt-bearing floods. [17] The ancient Mesopotamian civilizations were located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, while Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro were both located in the valley of the Indus river. [23] Compare the civilizations of Mesopotamia and the Indus River Valley. [23]

The excavated site at Lothal (another ancient city within the Indus Valley) has revealed harbour works, and the Harappan people may have been more advanced in their nautical skills than was originally perceived. [17] The scientists also gathered information on all Harappan sites that had been identified by archaeologists, both in the lower Indus valley and in the upper reaches of its tributaries. [24]

Harappa Mohenio-Daro or "Mound of the Dead" Both cities shared urban design and architectural features. 3 miles in circumference with populations of 40,000 Roots of Indus Valley began as early as 7000 B. C.E. Possibly began as herders who moved into the river valley during colder months. [12] Present day Pakistan and Northwest India is where Indus Valley was once located. [18] Indus valley civilisation Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. [12]

Such a system was not favorable for the Indus civilization, which had been built on bumper crop surpluses along the Indus and the Ghaggar-Hakra rivers in the earlier wetter era. [25] The importance of managing the river through irrigation and canal systems was of paramount concern for both river civilizations. [23]

POSSIBLY USEFUL
In 2001, archaeologists studying the remains of two men from Mehrgarh, Pakistan made the startling discovery that the people of Indus civilization, even from the early Harappan periods, had knowledge of medicine and dentistry. [1] It should be remembered that Indus civilization people, like all peoples in South Asia, built their lives around the monsoon, a weather pattern in which the bulk of a year's rainfall occurs in a four-month period. [1] Instead of building canals, Indus civilization people may have built water diversion schemes, which, like terrace agriculture, can be elaborated by generations of small-scale labor investments. [1] The region in which the river's waters formerly arose is known to be geologically active, and there is evidence of major tectonic events at the time the Indus civilization collapsed. [1] Judging from the dispersal of Indus civilization artifacts, the trade networks, economically, integrated a huge area, including portions of Afghanistan, the coastal regions of Persia, northern and central India, and Mesopotamia. [1] By 4000 B.C.E., a distinctive, regional culture, called pre-Harappan, had emerged in this area. (It is called pre-Harappan because remains of this widespread culture are found in the early strata of Indus civilization cities.) [1] We are required to completely reconsider not only certain aspects of Vedic India, but the entire relationship between Indus civilization and Vedic culture" (34). [1] The Indus civilization grew out of this culture's technological base, as well as its geographic expansion into the alluvial plains of what are now the provinces of Sindh and Punjab in contemporary Pakistan. [1] The Indus civilization is among the world's earliest civilizations, contemporary to the great Bronze Age empires of Mesopotamia and ancient Egypt. [1] The people of the Indus civilization achieved great accuracy in measuring length, mass, and time. [1] It is known that Indus civilization people practiced rainfall harvesting, a powerful technology that was brought to fruition by classical Indian civilization but nearly forgotten in the twentieth century. [1] Indus civilization people supplemented their diet with hunting. [1] At a recently discovered Indus civilization city in western India, archaeologists discovered a series of massive reservoirs, hewn from solid rock and designed to collect rainfall, that would have been capable of meeting the city's needs during the dry season. [1] For this reason, the Indus civilization is recognized to be the first to develop urban planning. [1] Indus civilization agriculture must have been highly productive; after all, it was capable of generating surpluses sufficient to support tens of thousands of urban residents who were not primarily engaged in agriculture. [1] The Indus civilization appears to contradict the hydraulic despotism hypothesis of the origin of urban civilization and the state. [1] Although some houses were larger than others, Indus civilization cities were remarkable for their apparent egalitarianism. [1] There were Indus civilization settlements spread as far south as Mumbai (Bombay), as far east as Delhi, as far west as the Iranian border, and as far north as the Himalayas. [1] Surprisingly, the archaeological record of the Indus civilization provides practically no evidence of armies, kings, slaves, social conflict, prisons, and other oft-negative traits that we traditionally associate with early civilization, although this could simply be due to the sheer completeness of its collapse and subsequent disappearance. [1] The native name of the Indus civilization may be preserved in the Sumerian Me-lah-ha, which Asko Parpola, editor of the Indus script corpus, identifies with the Dravidian Met-akam "high abode/country" (Proto-Dravidian). [1] The Indus civilization peaked around 2500 B.C.E. in the western part of South Asia. [1] It is very difficult to square this hypothesis with what is known about the Indus civilization. [1] At its peak, the Indus civilization may have had a population of well over five million. [1] In the aftermath of the Indus civilization's collapse, regional cultures emerged, to varying degrees showing the influence of the Indus civilization. [1]

To date, over 1,052 cities and settlements have been found, mainly in the general region of the Indus River in Pakistan. [1] The massive citadels of Indus cities that protected the Harappans from floods and attackers were larger than most Mesopotamian ziggurats. [1]

There is some disputed evidence indicative of another large river, now long dried up, running parallel and to the east of the Indus. [1] Well over 4,000 Indus symbols have been found on seals or ceramic pots and over a dozen other materials, including a'signboard' that apparently once hung over the gate of the inner citadel of the Indus city of Dholavira. [1] Today, much of the Indus art is considered advanced for their time period. [1] Its writing system, Indus script, remained undeciphered for a long time and it was generally accepted that it was a Dravidian language. [1] The ancient Indus systems of sewage and drainage that were developed and used in cities throughout the Indus empire were far more advanced than any found in contemporary urban sites in the Middle East and even more efficient than those in some areas of modern India and Pakistan today. [1]

In his view, the world owes the alphabet, numerals and much more besides to India, whose civilization is the most ancient and significant of them all. [1] Hinduism and the culture of the Indian people can be regarded as having roots in the life and practices of this civilization. [1]

In sharp contrast to this civilization's contemporaries, Mesopotamia and ancient Egypt, no large monumental structures were built. [1]

Along with Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia it was one of three early civilizations of the Old World, and of the three the most widespread It flourished in the basins of the Indus River, one of the major rivers of Asia, and the Ghaggar-Hakra River, which once coursed through northwest India and eastern Pakistan. [2] According to some archaeologists, more than 500 Harappan sites have been discovered along the dried up river beds of the Ghaggar-Hakra River and its tributaries, in contrast to only about 100 along the Indus and its tributaries; consequently, in their opinion, the appellation Indus Ghaggar-Hakra civilization or Indus-Saraswati civilization is justified. [2] The civilization is sometimes referred to as the Indus Ghaggar-Hakra civilization or Indus-Sarasvati civilization by Hindutva groups. or the Indus-Sarasvati civilization. [2] The Indus Vally Civilization has been tentatively identified with the toponym Meluhha known from Sumerian records. [2] Instead of building canals, Indus civilization people may have built water diversion schemes, which - like terrace agriculture - can be elaborated by generations of small-scale labor investments. [2] It should be remembered that Indus civilization people, like all peoples in South Asia, built their lives around the monsoon,a weather pattern in which the bulk of a year's rainfall occurs in a four-month period. [2] It is known that Indus civilization people practiced rainfall harvesting, a powerful technology that was brought to fruition by classical Indian civilization but nearly forgotten in the 20th century. [2] The people of the Indus Civilization achieved great accuracy in measuring length, mass, and time. [2] Judging from the dispersal of Indus civilization artifacts, the trade networks, economically, integrated a huge area, including portions of Afghanistan, the coastal regions of Persia, northern and western India, and Mesopotamia. [2] Today, many scholars believe that the collapse of the Indus Civilization was caused by drought and a decline in trade with Egypt and Mesopotamia. [2] This latter theory is supported by the presence of Indus Civilization elements in later cultures, called Harappan cultures, more in line with a slow decline than a fast disappearance at sword-point. [3] Some of the seals were used to stamp clay on trade goods, but they probably had other uses.Although some houses were larger than others, Indus civilization cities were remarkable for their apparent egalitarianism. [2] "Intensified summer monsoon and the urbanization of Indus Civilization in northwest India". [5]

A t this juncture, the right of three eastern rivers (Beas, Sutlej, and Ravi) was given to India under Irrigation Water Treaty 1960, during this period, Indus Basin Project (IBP) was implemented with international assistance of the Wold Bank. [11] By the dint of river regulation-cum-storage facilities of IBP and other irrigation developments on the river Indus, canal diversions progressively increased and peaked to about 108 MAF. The recent statistical data shows that the River Indus and its tributaries provide about 147 MAF during flood season. [11] In Sindh, water level of the Indus during summer had always been higher than the surrounding lands, thus, 16 inundation canals in this area had conveniently carried out the irrigation water during past cen tury. [11] Since, evap oration is high with meager and unreliable rainfall over Indus plains, hence, agriculture is wholly dependent on irrigation supplies. [11]

Mehrgarh is a Neolithic (7000BCE to c. 2500BCE) site to the west of the Indus River valley, near the capital of the Kachi District in Pakistan, on the Kacchi Plain of Balochistan, near the Bolan Pass. [5] Gallego Romero et al. (2011) notice that " he earliest evidence of cattle herding in south Asia comes from the Indus River Valley site of Mehrgarh and is dated to 7,000 YBP." [5]

The Aryans, the Iranians, the Graeco-Bactrians, the Parthenians, the Kushans, the white Huns, Muslims emperors, and Britishers plundered the rich valley of the Indus from time to time and ruled over the valley and northern India. [11] The Muslims of the sub-continent first tried to shake off a century old rule of British in 1857 and finally succeeded to drive them away in 1947, and the great valley Indus became part of Pakistan. [11] The Indus and its major tributaries flow in longitudinal valleys in structural troughs paralleled to the mountain and invariably take an acute bend descending to the alluvial plains by cutting through mountains. [11]

A total of 1,022 cities and settlements had been found by 2008, mainly in the general region of the Indus and Ghaggar-Hakra Rivers, and their tributaries; of which 406 sites are in Pakistan and 616 sites in India; of these 96 have been excavated. [5] The ancient Indus systems of sewerage and drainage that were developed and used in cities throughout the Indus region were far more advanced than any found in contemporary urban sites in the Middle East and even more efficient than those in many areas of Pakistan and India today. [5] It flourished along a system of monsoon-fed perennial rivers in the basins of the Ghaggar-Hakra River in northwest India, and the Indus River flowing through the length of Pakistan. [5] The Indus basin is a part of the catchments of the Indus river system that includes the northwest mountains, the Katchi plain, desert areas of Sindh, Bahawalpur, and the Rann of Kachh. [11] The total catchment area of Indus River system spreads over 944,573 square kilometers (364,700 square miles). [11]

The Indus cities are noted for their urban planning, baked brick houses, elaborate drainage systems, water supply systems, and clusters of large non-residential buildings. [5] Other cities emerging during the Urban period include Mohenjo-daro in the Lower Indus, Dholavira to the south on the western edge of peninsular India, in Kutch, Ganweriwala in Cholistan, and a fifth city, Rakhigarhi, on the Ghaggar-Hakra. [5] The final stages of the Early Harappan period are characterised by the building of large walled settlements, the expansion of trade networks, and the increasing integration of regional communities into a "relatively uniform" material culture in terms of pottery styles, ornaments, and stamp seals with Indus script, leading into the transition to the Mature Harappan phase. [5] An early and influential work in the area that set the trend for Hindu interpretations of archaeological evidence from the Harappan sites was that of John Marshall, who in 1931 identified the following as prominent features of the Indus religion: a Great Male God and a Mother Goddess; deification or veneration of animals and plants; symbolic representation of the phallus ( linga ) and vulva ( yoni ); and, use of baths and water in religious practice. [5] The river Indus and its tributaries provide the surface water. [11] Using U-Pb dating of zircon sand grains they found that sediments typical of the Beas, Sutlej and Yamuna rivers (Himalayan tributaries of the Indus) are actually present in former Ghaggar-Hakra channels. [5] Sediment contributions from these glacial-fed rivers stopped at least by 10,000 years ago, well before the development of the Indus civilisation. [5] The flat plain of Indus basin is made up of highly fertile alluvium deposited by the river Indus and its tributaries. [11] This land lies within the plains formed by river Indus and its tributaries. [11]

During the period of approximately 1900 to 1700 BCE, multiple regional cultures emerged within the area of the Indus civilisation. [5] In the aftermath of the Indus Civilisation's localisation, regional cultures emerged, to varying degrees showing the influence of the Indus Civilisation. [5] In the aftermath of the Indus Civilization's collapse, regional cultures emerged, to varying degrees showing the influence of the Indus Civilization. [2]

The massive walls of Indus cities most likely protected the Harappans from floods and may have dissuaded military conflicts. [5] The Harappan language is not directly attested and its affiliation is uncertain since the Indus script is still undeciphered. [2] A number of seals with Indus script have been also found in Mesopotamian sites. [5] Square-shaped Indus seals of fired steatite have been found at a few sites in Mesopotamia. [5] A harp-like instrument depicted on an Indus seal and two shell objects found at Lothal indicate the use of stringed musical instruments. [2] Well over 400 Indus symbols have been found on seals or ceramic pots and over a dozen other materials, including a'signboard' that apparently once hung over the gate of the inner citadel of the Indus city of Dholavira. [2] Between 400 and as many as 600 distinct Indus symbols have been found on seals, small tablets, ceramic pots and more than a dozen other materials, including a "signboard" that apparently once hung over the gate of the inner citadel of the Indus city of Dholavira. [5] There are some circular stamp seals with geometric designs, but lacking the Indus script which characterized the mature phase of the civilisation. [5] The Ten Indus Scripts, discovered near the northern gateway of the Dholavira citadel in India. [3] "Approaching rice domestication in South Asia: New evidence from Indus settlements in northern India". [5] Mohenjo-daro, on the right bank of the Indus River, is a UNESCO World Heritage Site, the first site in South Asia to be so declared. [5] Recent examination of human skeletons from the site of Harappa has demonstrated that the end of the Indus civilisation saw an increase in inter-personal violence and in infectious diseases like leprosy and tuberculosis. [5] Mesopotamia and Egypt were longer-lived, but coexisted with Indus civilisation during its florescence between 2600 and 1900 B.C. Of the three, the Indus was the most expansive, extending from today's northeast Afghanistan to Pakistan and India." [5]



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3. (46) Indus Valley Civilization - New World Encyclopedia

4. (23) What is the Indus Valley Civilization

5. (21) Ancient Irrigation

6. (20) Indus Basin Irrigation System | Indus River | Water Resources

7. (20) Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro - mrdowling.com

8. (18) Indus Valley Civilization: Harappa & Mohenjo-Daro - Video & Lesson Transcript | Study.com

9. (16) Untitled Document

10. (14) The Remarkable Indus Valley Civilization

11. (14) Indus Valley. The Birthplace of Cotton. and the resulting rise of it's civilization.

12. (12) Climate Change Spurred Fall of Ancient Culture : Oceanus Magazine

13. (12) River valley civilization - Wikipedia

14. (11) Indus Basin - The Largest Irrigation System of the World - inspirich

15. (11) What similarities exist between the ancient civilizations of Harappa and Mesopotamia? | eNotes

16. (10) Indus valley civilisation

17. (9) Ancient Harappan Civilization Collapsed Because of Changes in the Climate | PlanetSave

18. (8) Irrigation Systems, Ancient - dam, building, river, important, salt, source

19. (8) Climate change led to collapse of ancient Indus civilization, study finds -- ScienceDaily

20. (7) Irrigation systems in ancient civilization by Amit Parikh on Prezi

21. (6) The Genius of Ancient Man: The Harappan Civilization: An Attempt at Unity and Peace

22. (5) Timeline of irrigation - Timelines

23. (4) Indus River Valley Civilization Indian History AP World History

24. (2) Indus River Valley Civilization

25. (1) Ecology of Karez Irrigation: A Case of Pakistan on JSTOR

26. (1) Indus River Valley Civilizations

27. (1) Third of all the drainage and sewer system of the Harappan Civilization was

28. (1) Horticulture/Irrigation - Wikibooks, open books for an open world


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