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Protestant Reformation Northern Renaissance

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Protestant Reformation Northern Renaissance

C O N T E N T S:

KEY TOPICS
  • The Northern Renaissance was also closely linked to the Protestant Reformation, and the long series of internal and external conflicts between various Protestant groups and the Roman Catholic Church had lasting effects.(More...)
  • Although Renaissance humanism and the large number of surviving classical artworks and monuments in Italy encouraged many Italian painters to explore Greco-Roman themes, Northern Renaissance painters developed other subject matters, such as landscape and genre painting.(More...)
  • Though Holbein was the best-known painter in England during the Reformation, Albrecht Dürer was the artist most responsible for transmitting Italian Renaissance principles to the North and spurring the development of a distinctly Northern style.(More...)
  • The type of subject matter created during the Protestant Reformation was very different when compared to earlier works of art which were very often focused on a religious theme.(More...)
  • Oil painting became popular in Europe during the Northern Renaissance and was introduced to Italy by Northern Renaissance artists.(More...)
  • Unlike the Northern Netherlands, the Southern Netherlands was more influenced by the Counter Reformation than the Protestant Reformation.(More...)
  • The Northern Renaissance in the Netherlands indirectly reflects the influence of Protestantism in that religious themes no longer prevailed in art, although more direct causes were the changing structure of the Netherlands economy and culture.(More...)

POSSIBLY USEFUL
  • Renaissance humanism and the large number of surviving classical artworks and monuments encouraged many Italian painters to explore Greco-Roman themes more prominently than northern artists, and likewise the famous 15th-century German and Dutch paintings tend to be religious.(More...)



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KEY TOPICS
The Northern Renaissance was also closely linked to the Protestant Reformation, and the long series of internal and external conflicts between various Protestant groups and the Roman Catholic Church had lasting effects. [1] The main thing from the Renaissance which fueled the Protestant Reformation was the Gutenberg Bible. [2]

Overall it is clear that the Protestant Reformation changed the subject matter within northern renaissance art during the 16 th century, focusing more on secular rather than religious subject matter. [3] What did change during the Protestant Reformation was the subject matter which was shown in northern renaissance art. [3] Before reading about the Protestant Reformation I figured that it would have to do with a change in artistic style within the northern renaissance, but after reading about it I quickly found out my idea of it was very wrong. [3]

There are at least two ways in which the Northern Renaissance led to the Reformation. [2] The Reformation ushered in a new artistic tradition that highlighted the Protestant belief system and diverged drastically from southern European humanist art produced during the High Renaissance. [1] The Protestant Reformation during the 16th century in Europe almost entirely rejected the existing tradition of Catholic art, and very often destroyed as much of it as it could reach. [4] The Protestant Reformation was a religious movement that occurred in Western Europe during the 16th century that resulted in the theological divide between Roman Catholics and Protestants. [1] Protestant Reformation : The 16th century schism within Western Christianity initiated by Martin Luther, John Calvin, and other early Protestants; characterized by the objection to the doctrines, rituals, and ecclesiastical structure of the Roman Catholic Church and led to the creation of Protestant churches, which were outside of the control of the Vatican. [1] These ideas, which surfaced in art, also weakened the hold of the Roman Catholic church on society and led people to question authority, part of what caused the Protestant Reformation. [2] As the Counter-Reformation grew stronger and the Catholic Church felt less threat from the Protestant Reformation, Rome once again began to assert its universality to other nations around the world. [4] Bruegel's Peasant Wedding : Bruegael's Peasant Wedding is a painting that captures the Protestant Reformation artistic tradition: focusing on scenes from modern life rather than religious or classical themes. [1] The Protestant Reformation induced a wave of iconoclasm, or the destruction of religious imagery, among the more radical evangelists. [1] By the time of the Protestant Reformation, many German principalities were already growing tired of the Vatican's rule and they were starting to push their limits. [2] The Bible became widely available in translation, a factor often attributed to the spread of the Protestant Reformation. [5]


Although Renaissance humanism and the large number of surviving classical artworks and monuments in Italy encouraged many Italian painters to explore Greco-Roman themes, Northern Renaissance painters developed other subject matters, such as landscape and genre painting. [1] Characteristic of Antwerp Mannerism are paintings that combine early Netherlandish and Northern Renaissance styles, and incorporate both Flemish and Italian traditions into the same compositions. [1]

The Northern Renaissance was the Renaissance that occurred in Europe north of the Alps. [5] In some areas, the Northern Renaissance was distinct from the Italian Renaissance in its centralization of political power. [1]

The Northern Renaissance style might be described as the very singular result of a blending of Late Gothic art, contemporary ideas about observation, and Reformation ideology. [6] Background readings for students can include your survey textbook and the extensive Smarthistory sections on Flanders, the Reformation, and the Northern Renaissance. [6]

The Protestant Reformation, a movement to reform the Roman Catholic Church, dealt a severe blow to the Renaissance in Germany and the Low Countries. [7] The Protestant Reformation dealt a severe blow to Renaissance art, and many artists' careers were damaged. [7] Virtually no important sculpture was created in Germany between 1520 and 1555 because the Protestant Reformation brought an end to the Renaissance. [7]

Bruegel's work also shows how the artistic style of northern art has pretty much remained the same throughout the Protestant Reformation. [3] One artist that I believe encompasses much of the northern style during the Protestant Reformation was Pieter Bruegel the Elder. [3] The Protestant Reformation was centered in Northern Europe and these artists started focusing less on large-scale public art and more on smaller pieces meant for individual worship at home. [8] After viewing this lesson, you should be able to describe the influence that the Protestant Reformation had on Northern European art. [8]

One notes a difference in the art of the Northern Renaissance after the Protestant Reformation, including a disappearance of depictions of Mary and the Saints, and an increased emphasis on figures reading or having a Bible. [9] The Protestant reformation, brought on by the northern renaissance, gave us diverse religions such as Lutheranism, Calvinism, Anabaptist, and many others. [10]


Though Holbein was the best-known painter in England during the Reformation, Albrecht Dürer was the artist most responsible for transmitting Italian Renaissance principles to the North and spurring the development of a distinctly Northern style. [11] Soon northern European scholars and artists began making their own cultural contributions, which became known as the northern Renaissance. (For purposes here, northern Europe is defined as Germany, the Low Countries--present-day Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxembourg--France, England, and Spain. [7] This becomes quite evident when looking at earlier northern renaissance art work by artist such as Jan van Eyck who used religious themes or symbols within almost all of his work. [3] Spanning two centuries--from around 1380 to 1580--the Northern Renaissance was the period in which the artistic practices and humanist ideals of Renaissance Italy migrated north across the Alps, and flourished in Germany, the Netherlands, and France. [11] Desiderius Erasmus, (born October 27, 1469, Rotterdam, Holland --died July 12, 1536, Basel, Switzerland), Dutch humanist who was the greatest scholar of the northern Renaissance, the first editor of the New Testament, and also an important figure in patristics and classical literature. [12] The Dutch painter and engraving designer Pieter Bruegel the Elder (pronounced BROO-gehl; c. 1525-1569) is considered one of the foremost late northern Renaissance artists. [7] Albrecht Durer was the foremost painter of the Northern Renaissance, but he was far from the only one. [8] The German painter Hans Holbein the Younger (c. 1497-1543) was one of the best-known portraitists of the northern Renaissance. [7] During the northern Renaissance, advances took place in literature, painting, sculpture, architecture, and music. [7] Focus: where and when the Northern Renaissance took place; the unique features of Christian humanism (page 220). 2. [13]


The type of subject matter created during the Protestant Reformation was very different when compared to earlier works of art which were very often focused on a religious theme. [3] This work of art by him shows some of the effects of the Protestant Reformation. [3]

In 1517, the German monk Martin Luther managed to start a period of religious protest against the Catholic Church called the Protestant Reformation. [8] The movement is epitomized by the Dutch humanist scholar Desiderius Erasmus of Rotterdam, whose critical satires of the Catholic Church opened the door for the Protestant Reformation. [11] With the Protestant Reformation (think "protest and reform"), artists in the North including Dürer lost a major patron--the Church. [6] Luther and the Protestant Reformation; I&I : the nature of Luther's challenge to the Church (pages 220-222); Calvinism ( I&I : Predestination); the spread of Protestantism (pages 222-223). [13] This was the beginning of a division within the Christian church known as the Protestant Reformation. [8] By criticizing ecclesiastical abuses, while pointing to a better age in the distant past, he encouraged the growing urge for reform, which found expression both in the Protestant Reformation and in the Catholic Counter-Reformation. [12] Rabelais wrote Gargantua and Pantagruel during the religious and intellectual turmoil of the Protestant Reformation. [7] Let's pop into a few of these studios and take a more direct look at how the Protestant Reformation impacted some of these artists. [8] For the most part the Protestant Reformation actually didn't affect the artistic style of the north much at all. [3] His position at Louvain became increasingly difficult because he was considered a supporter of Martin Luther (1483-1546), the German priest who initiated the Protestant Reformation in 1517. [7] Riemenschneider was quite influential within the Würzburg diocese until 1525, but the future impact of his work was severely limited by the Protestant Reformation and its political upheaval. [7] The Protestant Reformation introduced some pretty substantial changes into European society. [8] There was only one accepted way to believe, but the Protestant Reformation questioned that absolute power. [6]

Humanism and the Renaissance + Protestant Reformation Scientific Revolution Kelly McCabe CCM Summer Session III Professor Pilant Term Paper CCM Summer Session III 2012 Early Modern European History Term Paper The later Middle Ages is characterized as a time of great transition and advancement, especially pertaining to areas of politics, economics, art and intellect. [10] The Renaissance and the Protestant Reformation both introduced radical intellectual and religious ideas that challenged centuries of established doctrine. [10] Stresses the influences of Italian Renaissance Art and the impact of the Protestant Reformation from ca. 1475 to 1575. [14]

The Northern Renaissance was also closely linked to the Protestant Reformation and the long series of internal and external conflicts between various Protestant groups and the Roman Catholic Church had lasting effects, such as the division of the Netherlands. [15] The Protestant Reformation was a major 16th century European movement aimed initially at reforming the beliefs and practices of the Roman Catholic Church. [10] The Protestant Reformation Introduction The Protestant Reformation of the sixteenth century is one of the most complex movements in European history since the fall of the Roman Empire. [10]

The Protestant Reformation which was started in the 1500’s, by a Catholic man named Martin Luther caused political instability and fragmented the Holy Roman Empire. [10] Europe after the Protestant Reformation and the Catholic Counter Reformation The period immediately following the Protestant reformation and the Catholic counter reformation, was full of conflict and war. [10] Introduction The Protestant Reformation of the Catholic Church devastated the religious unity of Christian Europe, resulting in a great deal of antagonism, which in turn led to the persecutions, denial of civil rights, expulsion, and ultimately the torture and death of many men, women and children. [10] PROTESTANT REFORMATION: A MENTOR TO CHRISTIAN CIVILIZATION When we talk about Protestant Reformation, what usually comes to our mind is a movement that brought about negative effects not just in Europe but also in the whole Catholic Church, which are still being felt and experienced even today. [10] Major Causes and Effects of the Protestant Reformation There were several causes of the Protestant Reformation that effected society, politics, and religion in Europe during the 16th century. [10] Essay 1 Topic 3: Martin Luther started the Protestant Reformation when he nailed his 95 theses to the door of the Castle Church in Wittenberg, Germany on October 31, 1517. [10] Protestant Reformation The practices of The Catholic Church during the sixteenth century caused a monk named Martin Luther to question The Church’s ways. [10] The Counter-Reformation was the response of the Catholic Church to the Protestant Reformation set in motion by Martin Luther. [10] This conflict is called the Protestant Reformation, and the Catholic response to it is called the Counter-Reformation. [10] This revival has often been referred to as the Catholic Counter-reformation, as a response against the Protestant Reformation. [10]

Purgatory During the Protestant Reformation All Souls Day, November 2nd, does anyone really understand why it is a holy day or is it just another meaningless holiday Catholics are asked to attend church? All Souls Day is a day that the Catholic Church has set aside to help pray for all the souls not yet joined with god. [10] The Protestant Reformation Throughout the Middle Ages the Catholic Church was subject to much criticism and disappointment. [10] The Protestant Reformation and European expansion have both left political, social and economic impacts throughout history. [10] The Impact of the Documents of the Protestant Reformation The documents of the Protestant Reformation offer a tremendous amount of significance for World History as they were symbols of tremendously revolutionary events. [10] Martin Luther and Phillip Melanchthon's Contributions in Educational Reform in the Protestant Reformation The life of Martin Luther is frequently studied and his ideas are widely known. [10] Martin Luther and the Reformation A German Augustinian friar, Martin Luther launched the Protestant Reformation of the sixteenth century. [10] Martin Luther was one the most influential people that inspired the Protestant Reformation and impacted Christianity. [10] Martin Luther almost single handedly lead the Protestant Reformation with his 95 Theses. [10] The Protestant Reformation during the sixteenth century established a schism between Christian beliefs that lead to the emergence of divergent interpretations of the Bible. [10]


Oil painting became popular in Europe during the Northern Renaissance and was introduced to Italy by Northern Renaissance artists. [9] Northern Renaissance artists were famous for imbuing their paintings with religious and philosophical symbolism. [16] Early Northern Renaissance artists used many elements of an updated version of the Gothic style rather than the elements of the Italian Renaissance style. [9] A bias in favor of Italian art among earlier generalizations of scholars made Italy the focus of artistic invention and the Northern Renaissance a less sophisticated imitation of the real thing. [17] The Northern Renaissance refers to the events that happened during the Renaissance in Europe outside of Italy. [9] The German artist Albrecht Dürer (1471-1528) is considered to be the most important artist of the Northern Renaissance because of his influence on some of his contemporaries and also on later European artists. [9] Take a close look at how artists of the Northern Renaissance embedded deeper symbolic messages in works like Jan Van Eyck's Arnolfini Wedding. [16] Many Northern Renaissance artists added incredible, intricate, details to their work. [9] Although some of the patrons of Northern Renaissance artists were the leaders and elites, other patrons were the upperclass or wealthy middle class people. [9] At the same time as the Northern Renaissance, many of these same countries were also entering the Age of Exploration. [18] The most influential regions during the Northern Renaissance were Germany, Flanders, and the Netherlands. [9] Devotional works were very popular during the Northern Renaissance, Christians used these works to immerse themselves in the details of Christ’s Passion. [9] Cite this page as: Dr. Bonnie Noble, "An introduction to the Northern Renaissance in the sixteenth century," in Smarthistory, August 9, 2015, accessed May 18, 2018, https://smarthistory.org/an-introduction-to-the-northern-renaissance-in-the-sixteenth-century/. [17]


Unlike the Northern Netherlands, the Southern Netherlands was more influenced by the Counter Reformation than the Protestant Reformation. [19] The Northern Protestant painters believed that "an ordinary life could glorify God just as much as a life `in the ministry' "; since god created humans in His image, the reformation artists claimed that they are glorifying god by portraying the natural beauty of his creation, in other words, the people. [19]

The corruption and immorality of the Church spurred the Christian Reform movement in Europe, eventually leading to the "hundred years of civil war between Protestants and Catholics" or the Protestant Reformation. [19] According to the Art History Professor Sarah Blick from Canyon University, the Counter- Reformation had a more direct influence on art produced after 1520s then the Protestant Reformation. [19] Therefore, she suggested me focus on the lack of religious content in the artworks in order to study the influence of Protestant Reformation during her interview. [19] Why? Because the Protestant Reformation owed so much to the developments of Humanism and the work done by humanists to change how people thought. [20] Despite such important commonalities, Humanism and the Protestant Reformation were unable to make any sort of real alliance. [20]


The Northern Renaissance in the Netherlands indirectly reflects the influence of Protestantism in that religious themes no longer prevailed in art, although more direct causes were the changing structure of the Netherlands economy and culture. [19] This is the typical genre painting of Northern Renaissance departing itself from the religious influence of Roman Catholic Church of Italy. [19] In contrast to the "civic humanism’ of the Italian city states where the Renaissance began, the leading figures of the Northern Renaissance often thought in terms of royal government and emphasized a "Christian humanism’ concerned with religious texts and issues. [21] The Northern Renaissance in the Netherlands took on a completely different form from the Italian Renaissance because the Church no longer was the major patron in the North. [19] Therefore, the basis of art for the Northern Renaissance was observation while for the Italian Renaissance, it was theory. [19] Northern Renaissance painters, however, took the leading role in establishing new subject matter, such as landscape and genre painting. [15] The Northern Renaissance is the term used to describe the Renaissance in northern Europe, or more broadly in Europe outside Italy. [15] The fact that we are far from Italy tells us something about the character of the Northern Renaissance. [22] In the North, "the intellectual shakeup of age-old faiths and opinions prepared the way for a new and nonreligious outlook on the world-the Enlightenment-when the rise of a scientific view of nature would challenge forever the dogmatisms of the past," also called the Northern Renaissance. [19]

POSSIBLY USEFUL
Renaissance humanism and the large number of surviving classical artworks and monuments encouraged many Italian painters to explore Greco-Roman themes more prominently than northern artists, and likewise the famous 15th-century German and Dutch paintings tend to be religious. [5] In England and the northern Netherlands, the Reformation nearly ended the tradition of religious painting. [1] The Reformation was a religious movement in the 16th century that resulted in the theological divide between Roman Catholics and Protestants. [1] After the early years of the Reformation, artists in Protestant areas painted far fewer religious subjects for public display, partly because religious art had long been associated with the Catholic Church. [1] During the Reformation a great divergence arose between the Catholic Church and the Protestant Reformers of the north regarding the content and style of art work. [4] Hans Holbein the Younger's Noli me tangere a relatively rare Protestant oil painting of Christ from the Reformation period. [4]

This movement created a North-South split in Europe, where generally Northern countries became Protestant, while Southern countries remained Catholic. [1] The Catholic Counter-Reformation both reacted against and responded to Protestant criticisms of art in Roman Catholicism to produce a more stringent style of Catholic art. [4] Further waves of "Counter-Reformation art" occurred when areas formerly Protestant were again brought under Catholic rule. [4] Subjects prominent in Catholic art other than Jesus and events in the Bible, such as Mary and saints were given much less emphasis or disapproved of in Protestant theology. [4]

Art that portrayed religious figures or scenes followed Protestant theology by depicting people and stories accurately and clearly and emphasized salvation through divine grace, rather than through personal deeds, or by intervention of church bureaucracy. [1] The Protestant church was therefore able, as the Catholic Church had been doing since the early 15th century, to bring their theology to the people, and religious education was brought from the church into the homes of the common people, thereby forming a direct link between the worshippers and the divine. [4]

Reformation art embraced Protestant values, although the amount of religious art produced in Protestant countries was hugely reduced (largely because a huge patron for the arts--the Catholic Church--was no longer active in these countries). [1] During the early Reformation, some artists made paintings for churches that depicted the leaders of the Reformation in ways very similar to Catholic saints. [1] In these ways, both the ideas and the technology of the Renaissance helped lead to the Reformation. [2] In France, King Francis I imported Italian art, commissioned Venetian artists (including Leonardo da Vinci ), and built grand palaces at great expense, starting the French Renaissance. [5] Romanists : A group of artists in the late 15th and early 16th century from the Netherlands who began to visit Italy and started to incorporate Renaissance influences in their work. [1] A second group views the Renaissance as the first two to three centuries of a larger era in European history usually called early modern Europe, which began in the late fifteenth century and ended on the eve of the French Revolution (1789) or with the close of the Napoleonic era (1815). [5] The Renaissance is one of the most interesting and disputed periods of European history. [5]

Humanism influenced the Renaissance periods in Germany, France, England, the Netherlands, and Poland. [1] Among the most significant of these, humanism, would lay the philosophical grounds for much of Renaissance art, music, and science. [5] As Renaissance art styles moved through northern Europe, they were adapted to local customs. [1] As in Italy, the decline of feudalism opened the way for the cultural, social, and economic changes associated with the Renaissance in northern Europe. [1]

The Renaissance was brought to Poland directly from Italy by artists from Florence and the Low Countries, starting the Polish Renaissance. [5]

The Renaissance in Europe would also be kindled by a weakening of the Roman Catholic Church. [5] Feudalism had dominated Europe for a thousand years, but was on the decline at the beginning of the Renaissance. [5]

Antwerp Mannerism bore no direct relation to Renaissance or Italian Mannerism, but the name suggests a style that was a reaction to the "classic" style of the earlier Flemish painters. [1] Calvinism even objected to non-religious funerary art, such as the heraldry and effigies beloved of the Renaissance rich. [4] A new artistic tradition developed, producing far smaller quantities of art that followed Protestant agendas and diverged drastically from the southern European tradition and the humanist art produced during the High Renaissance. [4] The best known example is the new Spanish Netherlands (essentially modern Belgium ), which had been the centre of Protestantism in the Netherlands but became (initially) exclusively Catholic after the Spanish drove the Protestants to the north, where they established the United Provinces. [4] Peter Bruegel (1525-1569) of Flanders is the great genre painter of his time, who worked for both Catholic and Protestant patrons. [4] Iconoclasm: Catholic Altar Piece : Altar piece in St. Martin's Cathedral, Utrecht, attacked in the Protestant iconoclasm in 1572. [1]

Later Protestant taste turned from the display in churches of religious scenes, although some continued to be displayed in homes. [4] Protestant leaders, especially Huldrych Zwingli and John Calvin, actively eliminated imagery from their churches and regarded the great majority of religious images as idolatrous--even plain crosses. [1] Protestant churches that were not participating in the iconoclasm often selected as altarpieces scenes depicting the Last Supper. [4]

The Protestant church was therefore able to bring their theology to the people through portable, inexpensive visual media. [1] Later she turned Protestant, and feeling she must reverse what she now saw as a wrong action, she went to the convent church, removed the statue and burnt it. [4]

Humanism, then, set the stage for the Protestant idea that people could interact with and understand God by themselves. [2] Protestant theology centered on the individual relationship between the worshiper and the divine, and accordingly, the Reformation's artistic movement focused on the individual's personal relationship with God. [1]

According to Koerner, who dwells on Lutheran art, the Reformation renewed rather than removed the religious image. [4] For the most part, however, Reformation iconoclasm resulted in a disappearance of religious figurative art, compared with the amount of secular pieces that emerged. [1] Lutherans strongly defended their existing sacred art from a new wave of Calvinist-on-Lutheran iconoclasm in the second half of the century, as Calvinist rulers or city authorities attempted to impose their will on Lutheran populations in the " Second Reformation " of about 1560-1619. [4]

Although England pursued the Reformation ideal in its own way, leading to the formation of the Anglican Communion, the theology of the Thirty-Nine Articles of the Church of England were heavily influenced by Calvinism. [4] The Reformation produced two main branches of Protestantism ; one was the Evangelical Lutheran churches, which followed the teachings of Martin Luther, and the other the Reformed Churches, which followed the ideas of John Calvin and Huldrych Zwingli. [4] For Lutherans, "the Reformation renewed rather than removed the religious image." [4] This engraving, from 1510, well before the Reformation, contains no reference to religion or classicism, although much of his other work features both. [4] This began very early in the Reformation, when students in Erfurt destroyed a wooden altar in the Franciscan friary in December 1521. [4]

While first introduced by the Italian states and the early captains, such as Giovanni Caboto, Giovanni da Verrazzano and Columbus, who were Italian explorers, the development would end Northern Italy's role as the trade crossroads of Europe, shifting wealth and power westwards to Spain, Portugal, France, England, and the Netherlands. [5] In the 16th century, mythological and other themes from history became more uniform amongst northern and Italian artists. [5] Northern painters in the 16th century increasingly looked to Rome for influence, and became known as the Romanists. [1] By the end of the 16th century, artists such as Karel van Mander and Hendrik Goltzius collected in Haarlem in a brief but intense phase of Northern Mannerism that also spread to Flanders. [1]

In much of northern Europe, the Church virtually ceased to commission figurative art, placing the dictation of content entirely in the hands of the artists and lay consumers. [4] Antwerp, located in Belgium, was a center for art in the Netherlands and northern Europe for much of the 16th and 17th centuries. [1]

Altarpieces became larger and more easy to make out from a distance, and the large painted or gilded carved wooden altarpieces that were the pride of many northern late medieval cities were often replaced with paintings. [4] This type of landscape painting, apparently void of religious or classical connotations, gave birth to a long line of northern European landscape artists, such as Jacob van Ruisdael. [4]

Many artists in Protestant countries diversified into secular forms of art like history painting, landscapes, portraiture, and still life. [1] Iconoclastic incidents during the Calvinist 'Second Reformation' in Germany provoked reactive riots by Lutheran mobs, while Protestant image-breaking in the Baltic region deeply antagonized the neighbouring Eastern Orthodox, a group with whom reformers might have hoped to make common cause. [4] Protestant religious art both embraced Protestant values and assisted in the proliferation of Protestantism, but the amount of religious art produced in Protestant countries was hugely reduced. [4]

The Renaissance involved ideas of humanism, centered on the concerns of humans, and away from religion. [2] Before 1497, Italian Renaissance humanism had little influence outside Italy. [5] Writers and humanists such as Rabelais, Pierre de Ronsard and Desiderius Erasmus were greatly influenced by the Italian Renaissance model and were part of the same intellectual movement. [5] This influenced the German Renaissance, French Renaissance, English Renaissance, Renaissance in the Low Countries, Polish Renaissance and other national and localized movements, each with different characteristics and strengths. [5] During the English Renaissance (which overlapped with the Elizabethan era ) writers such as William Shakespeare and Christopher Marlowe composed works of lasting influence. [5] The High Renaissance art of Michelangelo and Raphael and the stylistic tendencies of Mannerism had a significant impact on their work. [1] There was also a reaction against images from classical mythology, the other manifestation of the High Renaissance at the time. [1]

By that time the Renaissance period had come to a close, and the baroque movement, with its emphasis on sensuality and expressiveness, was gaining momentum in Europe. [7] Throughout the Renaissance, the Low Countries were the birthplace of many major composers as well as a vast number of lesser-known musicians who wrote works that were performed in the chapels, churches, and cathedrals of Europe, particularly in France and Italy. [7] For most of the Renaissance, painting in Spain and Portugal was dominated by foreign masters--artists from Flanders and Burgundy in the fifteenth century and artists from Italy in the sixteenth century. [7] The greatest efforts to promote the Renaissance were made in the sixteenth century by Holy Roman Emperor Charles V (1500-1558; ruled 1519-56) and his son King Philip II (1527-1598; ruled 1556-98), who were active patrons of the arts. [7] If the fourteenth century had been a kind of awkward, groping adolescence for European art and identity (not to mention the Black Plague that killed a third of the European population), the fifteenth century saw more radical shifts toward a Renaissance ("rebirth") of Classical thinking. [6]

Protestant reformers did not approve of most Renaissance culture. [7] The French ch teau was the major contribution to northern Euorpean architecture during the Renaissance. [7] Again it was Dürer who brought the Renaissance to the north by using engravings to reproduce fine art. [7] In each country Renaissance concepts were adapted to existing art forms to produce distinctive versions of Renaissance classicism. [7] The family's support of the arts and humanities made Florence into the crade of the Renaissance, a cultural flowering only rivaled by that of ancient Greece. [23]

Renaissance ideas were only beginning to reach England at that time and gradually emerged over the next century. [7] The sections below focus on a few figures in France, England, and Spain, countries where the major literary contributions were made during the Renaissance period. [7] The masque was a popular form of court entertainment, especially in Italy, France, and England, during the Renaissance. [7] The leading humanists in Renaissance France were Guillaume Budé and Jacques Lefèvre d'. taples. [7] During the Renaissance, literature throughout Europe was directly influenced by the humanist emphasis on reviving ancient and traditional literary forms, exploring human creativity, and writing in native languages. [7] They are considered the supreme English examples of the sonnet form, which was in vogue in Europe during the Renaissance. [7]

By the time of the Renaissance, retablos could extend all the way from floor to ceiling and had become extremely ornate, covered with intricate carvings and loaded with paintings and statues. [7] His self-portraits, including the last he completed in 1500, at age 29, reveal new Renaissance conceptions of the artist: aristocratic, business-minded, and with God-given talents. [11] El Greco was a learned, well-read, and highly inventive artist who advanced Renaissance ideals in Spain. [7]

In a unique manner that fused his multiple identities--as Netherlander, Renaissance humanist, and pre-Tridentine Catholic--Erasmus helped to build what may be called the liberal tradition of European culture. [12] By the mid-sixteenth century the French had developed their own version of the Renaissance, particularly in literature and architecture. [7] The first Renaissance buildings appeared on the Iberian Peninsula in the late fifteenth century. [7] The course of the Renaissance in England followed the history of the Tudors, the royal family who gained control of the throne in 1485. [7] The comic writer François Rabelais and the essayist Michel de Montaigne have traditionally been considered the most important writers in France during the sixteenth century, the height of the Renaissance era. [7] The Renaissance in France is often thought to begin with the reign of King Francis I (1494-1547), who ruled from 1515 to 1547. [7] As in France, Spanish sculpture was dominated by foreign masters for most of the Renaissance. [7]

As tastes shifted from elaborate Gothic detail to simpler Renaissance forms, retablos were adapted to the plasteresco style. [7] While Dürer transformed Biblical scenes with Renaissance style, Hieronymus Bosch infused them with fantasy. [11]

He thus set a precedent followed by many other Renaissance composers who were trained in one country and pursued careers in other countries. [7] Several major composers emerged in the Low Countries during the early Renaissance period. [7] Although there were several important composers from the Low Countries during the Renaissance, their dominance had essentially passed by the end of the sixteenth century. [7]

The Heptaméron is now ranked alongside the books of François Rabelais and Michel de Montaigne as one of the greatest prose works of the French Renaissance. [7] The term "Renaissance" is no joke--Europe really was reborn into a new mindset during this period. [6] Spain was somewhat culturally isolated from mainstream Renaissance literature, yet the author Miguel de Cervantes produced Don Quixote, one of the great masterpieces of world literature, during this period. [7]

The German painter and graphic artist Albrecht Dürer (1471-1528) introduced the achievements of the Italian Renaissance into northern European art. [7] After returning to Nuremberg the artist painted several large altarpieces (works hung above altars in churches) that combined colorful Italian features with the traditional northern style. [7] The push away from strict religious themes also encouraged northern artists to expand their paintings to secular themes, including personal portraits, images of everyday life, and even landscapes. [8] Luther's views about the Christian faith were largely adopted by the artists in Northern Europe who embraced smaller, more intimate paintings that either dealt with personal religious faith or entirely secular themes. [8]

His influence was greater than that of any other northern artist of his time and was most widely felt through his woodcuts and engravings. [7] Not only that but it further drives itself into secular subject matter by clearly depicting a season; the season of winter, which shows the northern influence and tradition of calendars within this work of art. [3]

Like the Italian humanists, northern thinkers drew their inspiration from the languages and literature of ancient times, and they believed in the human potential for self-improvement. [7] Instead he found an opportunity to travel to Italy, the land of promise for northern humanists, as tutor to the sons of the future Henry VIII’s physician. [12] Cicona was probably born in the 1370s and was a choirboy in Liège (in present-day Belgium), but he spent most of his adult career in northern Italy. [7]

One of the first northern stylistic characteristics that stand out very clearly is the attention which has been paid to the detail of texture within Bruegel's painting. [3] The colors and lighting are characteristic of the introspective northern style, but what's really interesting are the placement of the figures. [8] Chris has a master's degree in history and teaches at the University of Northern Colorado. [8]

Prior to the Reformation the foremost sculptor in northern Europe was Tilman Riemenschneider (REE-menshnigh-der; c. 1460-1531), a native of Heilgenstadt, Germany. [7] El Greco thus contributed to the Catholic Reformation, which was underway at the time, by asserting the validity of church teachings. [7] The Catholic Reformation was the intellectual counter-force against Protestanism in the 1500's. [23]

During the reformation artists began to focus more on secular subject matter rather than on religious subject matter. [3] The effect of the reformation is first noticed very clearly through the lack of religious figures within the painting. [3] Rulers like Henry VIII, portrayed in Hans Holbein’s painting, tired of giving power to the Pope in Rome and thus had a political stake in the Reformation. [6]

During the turbulent years of the early Reformation, he worked to revitalize Christianity within the church through his active involvement in humanism. [7] Statutes passed by the Reformation Parliament in 1533 and 1534 named the king supreme head of the church and cut all ties with the papacy. [7]

In what ways was the Reformation a landmark event? How did it affect the course of European cultural history? 3. [13] Henry the VIII - was the main instigator of the English Reformation, married six times, and beheaded two of his wives. [23] During the Reformation the singing of psalms in native languages became important in all Protestant countries. [7]

Catholics continued to question his faithfulness to the church and Protestants called him a hypocrite for his failure to support Luther. [7] This happened because protestant groups didn't want pictures with religious subjects because of the unease within the church during that time. [3] Another reason why many artist went away from drawing religious art was because many Protestants saw art as idols of worship and to them god did not allow false idols to be worshipped. [3] What did painting in the Protestant North look like? If you remove the angels and deities and overt religious symbolism from Flemish paintings, leaving only the little scenes of everyday life, then blow those up to the size of a landscape, you might get something that looks like Pieter Bruegel's Return of the Hunters. [6] The Protestant Church did not commission religious images, in part because one of the complaints against the Catholic Church had been its sale of indulgences (documents forgiving people of their sins) in exchange for sponsorship of Catholic artistic and architectural projects. [6] Protestants objected to the presence of statues of saints and other religious figures in churches because, they said, the artwork detracted from direct communication with God. [7]

Mary was the Catholic queen of Scotland who was beheaded by order of her cousin Elizabeth I, the Protestant queen of England. [7] In 1529, when Protestant Basel banned Catholic worship altogether, Erasmus and some of his humanist friends moved to the Catholic university town of Freiburg im Breisgau. [12] Irritated by Protestants who called him a traitor to the Gospel as well as by hyper-orthodox Catholic theologians who repeatedly denounced him, Erasmus showed the petty side of his own nature often enough. [12] During the latter part of the sixteenth century, however, the cultural world was devastated by the Wars of Religion (1562-98), a bloody conflict between Catholics and Protestants. [7] Until his death in 1536 he was the focus of attacks from both Catholics and Protestants. [7]

The Protestants claimed that art and music detracted from the glorification of God. [7] Dürer's work proclaimed the unity of the new Protestant faith against the different sects arising at that time. [7] The Englishman John Wycliffe had translated it into the common language as well, for Protestant England. [6]

Art flourished in northern Europe, especially in Germany and the Low Countries, in the fifteenth century. [7] This lecture covers the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries in Northern Europe in areas including France, the Netherlands (Dutch art), Germany, and Flanders (Flemish art). [6]

Many northern European artists gained international reputations, especially in Germany and the Low Countries, which was also the center of humanism in northern Europe. [7] Innovations in painting emerged primarily in Germany and the Low Countries and then spread to other parts of northern Europe. [7]

The influence of the International Gothic Style (think elongated, pointed architecture with intricate detail) is manifest in the meticulous, near microscopic paintings of Northern Europe that resemble medieval manuscript illuminations. [6] Working in Ávila and Toledo, Berruguete incorporated Italian and northern European influences into his paintings. [7] Northern European humanist studies began in the Low Countries and Germany in the late 1400s. [7] The Brethren schools provided a training ground for an impressive number of northern European humanists. [7] The scholars were soon followed by artists and artisans, who received commissions from northern European monarchs and noblemen. [7] Most artists in northern Europe, therefore, created their works in a certain town or region, rather than moving from one artistic haven to another. [7] He was sort of the da Vinci of Northern Europe, always experimenting, deeply interested in combining art and science, and slightly reclusive. [8] In this lesson, we'll be talking about some of the impacts it had on the art of Northern Europe. [8]

These complaints resulted in widespread destruction of religious art throughout northern Europe in the 1520s and 1530s. [7] As Erasmus was expanding humanism in northern Europe, a controversy called the Reuchlin affair was taking place in Cologne, Germany. [7] Although Agricola's career was brief, he had a strong influence on humanism in northern Europe. [7] Germany was the major center for the production of sculpture in northern Europe. [7] During the 1400s commerce and trade flourished in northern Europe, around the coast of the Baltic Sea and in the Rhine River region of Germany. [7]

The Dutch scholar Desiderius Erasmus (1466-1536) was the foremost humanist in northern Europe. [7]

Italian Renaissance theories of art had begun to influence painting, sculpture, and architecture around the mid-1400s. [7] All of these elements reflect Italian Renaissance influences and at the time represented significant architectural innovation to the English. [7] Some sculpture was made in the North at this time, but is not included here because sculpture in the North is typically not considered as formally transformational as it was in the contemporaneous Italian Renaissance in the South. [6] Inspired by the innovations of the Italian Renaissance, thinkers and artists from the north then traveled to Italy to study with prominent figures. [7] This brings up the same shift that took place in the Italian Renaissance, from artist as craftsman to artist as genius. [6]

As in perspectival experiments during the Italian Renaissance, Holbein uses scientific approaches to painting to challenge subjective positions, compelling viewers to question their place in the world. [11] Starting in 1528, the king attempted to use Fontainebleau as a way to bring the Italian Renaissance into France. [7] Pilon used images that were characteristic of Italian Renaissance style. [7] They took with them the ideas of the Italian Renaissance, which was flourishing in city-states such as Florence, Milan, and Venice. [7] Considered the first professional architect in England, he was responsible for introducing Italian Renaissance architecture into the country. [7] Spain's limited involvement with Italian Renaissance culture began in 1442, when King Alfonso V of Aragon (1396-1458; ruled 1416-58) conquered the Kingdom of Naples. [7]

As writers tried to reform society, it began the Reformation, or the Elizabethan Age. [23] At the beginning of the Reformation, Erasmus had given Luther limited support, but he also voiced disapproval of Luther's radical language. [7]

The Reformation was a religious movement that divided the church between the Catholics and Protestants. [10] This reformation in the Church is significantly important as it was during these times when Europe was all but mired by Protestant movements. [10]

John Calvin (1509-1564) A radical protestant church leader who left France for Switzerland, where he argued for religious reforms. [24] Over the years, the Church of England became more Protestant during Henry's reign and through the reign of King Edward VI, Henry's son. [10] In the Netherlands, the Protestants and the Catholics were at eachother’s throats. [10] Protestant leaders like Martin Luther and John Calvin fiercely attacked and denied traditional Catholic beliefs, causing much controversy and debate upon religion. [10]

Many regions of Europe as a whole were converted to Protestantism, and many more Protestants emerged in areas where Catholicism remained the state religion. [10]

The "Northern" Renaissance refers to Renaissance art, architecture, and philosophy that took place outside of Italy. [18] Although the Renaissance came about differently in Northern Europe, many of the same themes were apparent. [24]

One of the last areas of Europe to experience the Renaissance was England. [18] Georgievska-Shine teaches Renaissance and Baroque art at the University of Maryland. [16] The center of the European Renaissance movement was in Italy. [18] While the Renaissance was happening in Italy, great artistic and social changes occurred in Germany and the Low Countries. [17] A major reason that the Renaissance began in Italy was that __________. [25] The Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris, France was built during the Middle Ages, while the St Maria Degli Angeli Cathedral in Florence, Italy was constructed during the Renaissance. [25] One of the first places that the Renaissance spread to was France. [18] During the Dutch Renaissance, Dutch painters developed their own style. [18] Renaissance architecture borrowed more form classical styles. [25]

Albrecht Durer (1471-1528) Like Leonardi DaVinci, Durer embodied the idea of a Renaissance person. [24] Bound up with the idea of frustrated creativity is the notion of creativity itself--which took on its present meaning during the Renaissance. [17] Nuremberg in southern Germany was the central city of the German Renaissance. [18] Another German that played a major role in the Renaissance was a priest named Martin Luther. [18] One way in which the writers pf tje Renaissance were influenced by the writer's of ancient Greece was that Renaissance writers ___________. [25] One might debate whether the North experienced a Renaissance, but the artistic, institutional, and intellectual changes are evident. [17]

Over time, however, the ideas and influence of the Italian Renaissance spread to other areas of Europe. [18]

Reformation is the religious revolution that took place in Western Europe in the 16th century. [10] The Reformation ended the religious unity of Europe and ushered in 150 years of religious warfare. [10] Reformation In the first half of the sixteenth century Western Europe experienced a wide range of social, artistic, political changes as the result of a conflict within the Catholic church. [10]



RANKED SELECTED SOURCES(26 source documents arranged by frequency of occurrence in the above report)

1. (78) Northern Renaissance Culture - Dictionary definition of Northern Renaissance Culture | Encyclopedia.com: FREE online dictionary

2. (51) Protestant Reformation Essay | Bartleby

3. (32) The Northern Renaissance | Boundless Art History

4. (27) Art in the Protestant Reformation and Counter-Reformation - Wikipedia

5. (16) Northern Renaissance - Wikipedia

6. (15) Art of the Renaissance: Protestant Reformation

7. (14) Northern Renaissance Art (1400-1600) | Art History Teaching Resources

8. (13) Art in the Protestant Reformation: Albrecht Durer & Northern European Artists - Video & Lesson Transcript | Study.com

9. (10) Renaissance for Kids: Northern Renaissance

10. (10) Depictions of the Reformation in Art

11. (9) Northern Renaissance

12. (9) Top 10 Facts About Northern Renaissance Art | The Cummer Museum of Art & Gardens

13. (7) How did the Northern Renaissance lead to the Protestant Reformation? | eNotes

14. (6) The Most Iconic Artists of the Northern Renaissance, From Dürer to Bosch - Artsy

15. (6) Desiderius Erasmus | Biography & Facts | Britannica.com

16. (5) An introduction to the Northern Renaissance in the sixteenth century Smarthistory

17. (4) Northern Renaissance and Reformation (Example) - MindMeister

18. (4) The Northern Renaissance and Its Impact | Art Essay

19. (3) fiero_im_ch08 - Chapter 8 REFORM The Northern Renaissance and the Reformation I Chapter Outline A Renaissance and Reformation 1 Christian humanism 2

20. (3) Northern Renaissance Paintings - Art Reproductions & Canvas Prints | TOPofART

21. (3) Understanding Northern Renaissance Art - Smithsonian Associates

22. (2) Humanism and the Reformation History

23. (2) The Western Humanities: The Protestant Reformation

24. (1) AHIS 426/826: Northern Renaissance and Reformation Art | Course Catalog | University of Nebraska-Lincoln

25. (1) Historical Context for The Protestant Reformation readings by Martin Luther and John Calvin | The Core Curriculum

26. (1) Northern Renaissance - Valerie White: AP Art History


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